Indonesia does not have a conservation system for natural biodiversity.

Indonesia tidak memiliki sistem pelestarian keanekaragaman hayati (biodiversity).

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The natural biodiversity of flora and fauna is the essence of the ecosystem, linked by the complex food web. For that reason, the conservation of natural biodiversity should not use a sectoral approach, but instead an ecosystem approach. Natural biodiversity is priceless wealth in the ecosystem, which should be conservedthrough the generations.

Unlike the North American and European countries that cleared virgin forests at the onset of industrial development, Indonesia, with its national philosophy “Unity in Diversity”, has from the start followed the land-use paradigm in utilizing natural forests,i.e.,”flora and fauna live side by side in harmony in their own habitats”.

The paradigm’s implementation is stipulated in several different regulations, such as Law No. 41/1999 on Forestry, Law No. 26/2007 on Spatial Planning and Law No. 5/1990 on Conservation of Natural Biodiversity and Ecosystems.

According to the prevailing laws, land in Indonesia is divided into two primary zones, Conservation Zone and Cultivation Zone (Tabel). The main function of the Conservation Zone is to “house” the conservation of flora and fauna either in situ (within their natural habitats) or ex situ (outside their natural habitats), the latter of which is a combination of natural and human efforts. Meanwhile, the Cultivation Zone is also another means for conserving biodiversity through forestry farming methods.

Table :   Biodiversity Conservation System in Indonesia

 In Thousand

Hectares

%
Ex Situ and In Situ Biodiversity Conservation in Conservation/Protected Zones
Nature Preserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries, National Parks, Nature Parks, Community Forests, Game Hunting Reserves, etc.41,57522.1
Biodiversity Conservation by Forestry in Cultivation Zones
Limited Production Forests, Production Forests, Conversion Production Forests, Industrial Forest Plantations46,56224.8
Total Forest Area88,13746.9
Plantations (Oil Palm, Rubber, Coconut, Cacao, Coffee, Tea, Sugarcane, etc.)22,70012.1
Total Land Cover110,83759.0
Food Crops, Vegetable Horticulture Farms, Fruit Farms, Tropical Plants/ Biopharmaceuticals/Medicinal Plants, Animal Husbandry Farms, Freshwater Fisheries32,90117.5
Other sectors44,03623.5
Total Land Area187,774100.0

Source: Environment and Forestry Ministry, Agriculture Ministry, Central Statistics Agency

In situ biodiversity conservation is conducted by keeping the flora and fauna in their natural habitats in protected forests and conservation forests (virgin forests). As each region has a unique ecosystem and natural biodiversity, protected/conservation forests exist in all regions in Indonesia. Protected/conservation forests are not to be converted for other functions. The second method of biodiversity conservation is by maintaining flora and fauna in man-made habitats, similar to but outside their natural habitats. Ex situ facilities take the forms of forest parks, botanical parks or zoos, which exist in many regions. Besides their function to conserve flora and fauna, ex situ facilities are also designed as public recreationareas.

The main function of Cultivation Zones is to facilitate social activities through farms, plantations, production forests, urban areas, residential areas and other designed spaces. The expansion of oil palm plantations takes place within the Cultivation Zone. Unlike the Conservation Zone, land use in the Cultivation Zone is convertible. An area initially allotted for farming can be converted into a non-farming area, production forests can be converted to non-production forests, and oil palm plantations can be converted into non-oil palm plantations, and vice-versa. The Cultivation Zone has not only social and economic functions, but as a whole, also has a third function of biodiversity conservation through cross-generational plant cultivation, animal husbandry farms and fisheries.

Farming plants and animalsare among an effective means to conserve biodiversity while at the same time,catering tohuman needs as has been recorded in the history of civilizations. Agricultural farms, plantations, industrial forestplantations, animal husbandry farms and fisheries, as a whole,are a means to conserve natural biodiversity in human history.

Keragaman hayati (biodiversity) baik tumbuhan (flora), hewan (fauna) merupakan esensi ekosistem yang didalamnya selain anekaragam hayati juga jejaring rantai makanan (food web complex). Karna itu pelestarian biodiversity tidak bisa dengan pendekatan sektoral, tapi harus pendekatan ekosistem. Biodiversity merupakan kekayaan yang bernilai tinggi dalam ekosistem sehingga harus dilestarikan secara lintas generasi.

Berbeda dengan yang terjadi di Amerika Utara dan Eropa yang menghabiskan hutan alam (virgin forest) pada awal pembangunan, Indonesia yang memiliki filosofi kehidupan berbangsa yakni Bhinneka Tunggal Ika sejak awal telah menganut paradigma penggunaan ruang termasuk pemanfatan hutan alam yakni “keragaman flora dan fauna hidup berdampingan secara harmoni pada ruang masing-masing“.

 

Implementasi paradigma tersebut adalah dimuat dalam berbagai Undang-Undang seperti UU No. 41/1999 tentang Kehutanan, UU No. 26/2007 tentang Tata Ruang dan UU No. 5/1990 tentang Konservasi Sumber Daya Hayati dan Ekosistem.

Menurut Undang-Undang tersebut, daratan Indonesia terbagi atas dua kawasan yakni Kawasan Lindung dan Kawasan Budidaya (Tabel). Kawasan Lindung fungsi utamanya diperuntukkan antara lain sebagai “rumahnya” atau pelestarian flora dan fauna baik secara In Situ (sepenuhnya dirawat alam) maupun secara Ex Situ (kombinasi perawatan alam dan manusia). Sedangkan Kawasan Budidaya juga merupakan bentuk pelestarian biodiversity dengan cara pembudidayaan.

Tabel.     Sistem Pelestarian Biodiversity Indonesia

 Ribu
Hektar
%
Pelestarian Biodiversity Secara Ex Situ dan In Situ Kawasan Lindung/Konservasi
Cagar Alam, Suaka Margasatwa, Taman Nasional, Taman Wisata Alam, Hutan Rakyat, Taman Buru dan lain-lain41.57522,1
Pelestarian Biodiversity dengan Cara Pembudidayaan di Kawasan Budidaya
Hutan Produksi Terbatas, Hutan Produksi, Hutan Produksi dapat dikonversi, HTI46.56224,8
Total Hutan 88.13746,9
Perkebunan (Sawit, Karet, Kelapa, Kakao, Kopi, Teh, Tebu dan lain-lain)22.70012,1
Total Land Cover110.83759,0
Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Hortikultura Sayuran, Buah-Buahan, Tanaman Hias/ Biofarmaka, Peternakan, Perikanan Air Tawar32.90117,5
Sektor Lainnya44.03623,5
Total Luas Daratan187.774100,0

Sumber : Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan, Kementerian Pertanian dan BPS

 

Pelestarian biodiversity secara In Situ dilakukan dengan cara mempertahankan ragam flora dan fauna pada habitat alamiahnya berupa hutan lindung dan hutan konservasi (virgin forest). Karena setiap daerah memiliki keunikan ekosistem dan biodiversity, maka hutan lindung/konservasi tersebut terdapat di seluruh daerah di Indonesia. Hutan lindung/konservasi tersebut tidak boleh dikonversikan menjadi fungsi lain. Pelestarian biodiversity yang kedua adalah dengan memelihara flora dan fauna dengan habitat buatan (menyerupai habitat alami) di luar habitatnya (Ex Situ) dalam bentuk kebun/taman hutan raya, kebun/taman binatang yang terdapat diberbagai daerah. Selain berfungsi untuk pelestarian flora/fauna, taman Ex Situ juga dijadikan sebagai wisata bagi masyarakat.

Kawasan Budidaya merupakan kawasan yang fungsi utamanya untuk kegiatan masyarakat baik pertanian, perkebunan, hutan produksi, perkotaan, pemukiman dan lain-lain. Ekspansi perkebunan kelapa sawit berada di dalam Kawasan Budidaya tersebut. Berbeda dengan Kawasan Lindung/Konservasi, penggunaan lahan pada Kawasan Budidaya dapat terjadi konversi antar sektor. Lahan pertanian dapat mengalami konversi menjadi lahan non pertanian, hutan produksi dapat dikonversikan menjadi non hutan produksi, kebun sawit dapat dikonversi menjadi lahan non sawit dan sebaliknya. Kawasan Budidaya selain berfungsi sosial-ekonomi juga secara keseluruhan berfungsi sebagai pelestarian biodiversity cara ketiga yakni melalui pembudidayaan tanaman/ternak/ikan secara lintas generasi.

Pembudidayaan tanaman/hewan merupakan salah satu cara yang efektif dalam melestarikan biodiversity sekaligus memenuhi kebutuhan manusia dalam sejarah peradaban manusia di Bumi. Pertanian, perkebunan, hutan tanaman industri, peternakan, perikanan budidaya secara keseluruhan merupakan salah satu cara pelestarian biodiversity dalam sejarah manusia di bumi.

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