Forest and land fires in Indonesia are larger than in other countries.

Kebakaran hutan dan lahan di Indonesia lebih luas dibandingkan dengan negara-negara lain.

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From 2010 to 2015, for example (Table), the average extent of forest and land fires in various countries remained high. In some countries they are even more extensive than in Indonesia. The area of forest and land fires in Russia reaches about 2.3 million ha each year; in the US it reaches 2.2 million hectares; about 236,000 ha burn in Australia, about 107,000 in Spain and about 84,000 hectares in Portugal. The area of forest and land fires in those countries is larger than in Indonesia, where it is about 64,000 hectares per annum.

The data shows that global forest and land fires are not country specific, not ecosystem specific and not industry/commodity specific either, but a global phenomenon that happens in nearly every country every year.

Table:   Area of forest fires in Indonesia and other countries (hectares)

Countries20112012201320142015Rata-Rata
USA*326,9473,688,6561,722,8701,435,0244,050,0602,244,711
Russia1,636,2321,900,0001,416,6593,738,2072,875,3502,313,290
Portugal73,813110,231152,75619,92964,44384,234
Spain102,161226,12558,98546,721103,200107,438
France9,4008,6003,6087,49311,1608,052
Italy72,004130,18429,07636,12541,51161,780
Greece29,14459,92446,67625,84664,44345,207
Poland2,6787,2351,2892,6905,5103,880
Sweden9454831,50814,6665943,639
Australia7,500 –174,000518,186245,980236,417
Indonesia**2,6129,6064,91844,546261,06064,548

Source:       European Commission, 2016 * USA-NOAA, National Centers for Environmental Information ** Environment and Forestry Ministry

Countries that have the best technology and equipment, have management, government and a large amount of funds and a reliable community ethos, such as the US, Australia and European countries, are also unable to prevent forest and land fires. Forest and land fires are not related to whether there is peat land and whether there are oil palm plantations. Russia, the US, Australia, Portugal and Italy do not have oil palm plantations, but forest and land fires also take place, even more than in Indonesia.

The interesting thing to learn is the distribution of fires based sector and land use (Figure). About 70 percent of fires in Europe and North Africa hit forests, timber estates and natural land and about 29 percent of fires take place on agriculture land. This shows that forest areas are the most being gutted by fire in each country.

A great many fires also hit agricultural land in nearly each country in Europe and North Africa. This raises interesting questions. Do farmers in advanced countries like Europe have habits like Indonesian farmers? Or is agriculture the victim of a spill-over of forest fires?

Dalam periode 2010-2015 misalnya (Tabel), rata-rata luas kebakaran hutan dan lahan pertahun di berbagai negara masih tetap tinggi bahkan sebagian besar lebih luas dibandingkan dengan Indonesia. Luas kebakaran hutan dan lahan di Rusia mencapai sekitar 2,3 juta hektar setiap tahun. USA mencapai sekitar 2,2 juta hektar, Australia sekitar 236 ribu hektar, Spanyol sekitar 107 ribu hektar dan Portugal sekitar 84 ribu hektar. Luas kebakaran hutan dan lahan negara-negara tersebut lebih besar dibandingkan rataan Indonesia yakni sekitar 64 ribu hektar per tahun.

Data-data tersebut menunjukkan bahwa kebakaran hutan dan lahan global bukan spesifik negara, bukan spesifik ekosistem dan bukan pula spesifik industri/komoditas, melainkan fenomena global yang terjadi pada hampir setiap negara setiap tahun.

Tabel.   Luas Kebakaran Hutan di Indonesia dan Negara-negara Lain (Hektar)

Negara20112012201320142015Rata-Rata
USA*326.9473.688.6561.722.8701.435.0244.050.0602.244.711
Rusia1.636.2321.900.0001.416.6593.738.2072.875.3502.313.290
Potugal73.813110.231152.75619.92964.44384.234
Spanyol102.161226.12558.98546.721103.200107.438
Perancis9.4008.6003.6087.49311.1608.052
Italia72.004130.18429.07636.12541.51161.780
Yunani29.14459.92446.67625.84664.44345.207
Polandia2.6787.2351.2892.6905.5103.880
Swedia9454831.50814.6665943.639
Australia7.500 –174.000518.186245.980236.417
Indonesia**2.6129.6064.91844.546261.06064.548

Sumber :       European Commission, 2016 *USA-NOAA, National Centers for Environmental Information ** Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan

Negara-negara yang memiliki teknologi dan peralatan terbaik, memiliki manajemen, pemerintahan dan dana yang kuat serta etos masyarakat yang mumpuni seperti USA, Australia dan negara-negara Eropa, ternyata juga tidak mampu mencegah terjadinya kebakaran hutan dan lahan. Bahkan, kebakaran hutan dan lahan juga tidak terkait dengan ada tidaknya lahan gambut, dan ada tidaknya perkebunan kelapa sawit. Rusia, USA, Australia, Portugal, Spanyol, dan Itali tidak memiliki perkebunan sawit, namun luas kebakaran hutan dan lahan juga terjadi bahkan lebih luas dibandingkan Indonesia.

Hal yang menarik lagi untuk dipelajari adalah distribusi kebakaran berdasarkan sektor/land use (Gambar). Sebagian besar yakni 70 persen kebakaran yang terjadi di Eropa dan Afrika Utara adalah berupa hutan, hutan tanaman dan lahan kosong (natural land) dan sekitar 29 persen kebakaran terjadi pada lahan pertanian. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kawasan hutan adalah land use yang paling luas dominan terbakar di setiap negara.

Lahan pertanian juga cukup banyak terbakar pada hampir setiap negara Eropa maupun Afrika Utara. Hal ini menarik untuk didiskusikan apakah para petani di negara-negara maju seperti Eropa juga memiliki kebiasaan seperti petani Indonesia? Ataukah pertanian merupakan korban rembetan kebakaran hutan?

Figure Forest fire distribution based on sectors in Europe and Africa 2014

Forest fire distribution based on sectors in Europe and Africa 2014

Source : European Commission/JRC, 215

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