Forest and land fires in Indonesia caused by oil palm plantations

Kebakaran hutan dan lahan di Indonesia adalah disebabkan perkebunan kelapa sawit.

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Forest and land fires that happen in various countries also happen in Indonesia. Based on data from the Forestry and Environment Ministry of the Republic of Indonesia (2016), forest and land fires happen in a majority of provinces throughout Indonesia (Table).

Table.   Vastness of Forest and Land Fires in Indonesia 2010-2016

ProvincesVastness(Ha)
2010-2016
ProvincesVastness(Ha)
2010-2016
Central Kalimantan21,316Papua*710
South Sumatra8,065South Kalimantan539
Lampung*4,964East Nusa Tenggara*453
North Sulawesi*4,627Southeast Sulawesi*445
East Kalimantan4,181South Sulawesi*195
Jambi3,334Bali*72
Gorontalo*2,083Bengkulu62
Riau2,073West Sumatra60
North Sumatra1,847Aceh58
West Kalimantan1,841Central Sulawesi*34
Maluku*1,787North Maluku*26
East Java*1,753Yogyakarta*10
Central Java*1,671North Kalimantan3
West Java*1,464Banten*2
West Nusa Tenggara*1,363West Papua*1

Source: Forestry Ministry. 2016 *Not oil palm center

In several provinces with high concentrations of oil palm plantations such as Central Kalimantan, South Sumatra, East Kalimantan and Riau, forest and land fires have taken place in relatively large areas. However, forest and land fires covering relatively large areas also take place in provinces having no oil palm plantations, such as Lampung, North Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Maluku, East Java, Central Java and West Java. Meanwhile, oil palm plantation-expansion provinces such as North Kalimantan and Bengkulu record relatively fewer forest fires compared with fires in Central Java and East Nusa Tenggara provinces, where there is no oil palm development.

Therefore, just as in other countries, forest and land fires in Indonesia are not systematically or specifically related to oil palm development. In fact forest and land fires can happen in provinces with or without oil palm development. Also, forest and land fires do not specifically hit peatland areas. East Java, West Nusa Tenggara and West Java, which do not have any peatland, also suffer from forest fires in relatively large areas.

Forest and land fires not related to peatland are also confirmed by the spread of hotspots found in the July-November period 2015 (Figure). The spread of hotspots in peatland was even smaller than those outside peatland.

Fenomena kebakaran hutan dan lahan yang terjadi di berbagai negara tampaknya juga terjadi di Indonesia. Berdasarkan data Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan RI (2016) kebakaran hutan/lahan terjadi pada hampir seluruh provinsi di Indonesia (Tabel).

Tabel.   Rataan Luas Kebakaran Hutan dan Lahan di Indonesia 2010-2016

ProvinsiRataan (Ha)
2010-2016
ProvinsiRataan (Ha)
2010-2016
Kalimantan Tengah21.316Papua*710
Sumatera Selatan8.065Kalimantan Selatan539
Lampung*4.964Nusa Tenggara Timur*453
Sulawesi Utara*4.627Sulawesi Tenggara*445
Kalimantan Timur4.181Sulawesi Selatan*195
Jambi3.334Bali*72
Gorontalo*2.083Bengkulu62
Riau2.073Sumatera Barat60
Sumatera Utara1.847Aceh58
Kalimantan Barat1.841Sulawesi Tengah*34
Maluku*1.787Maluku Utara*26
Jawa Timur*1.753Yogyakarta*10
Jawa Tengah*1.671Kalimantan Utara3
Jawa Barat*1.464Banten*2
Nusa Tenggara Barat*1.363Papua Barat*1

Sumber : Kementerian Kehutanan, 2016 *bukan sentra kebun sawit

Beberapa provinsi sentra kebun sawit seperti Kalimantan Tengah, Sumatera Selatan, Kalimantan Timur dan Riau terjadi kebakaran hutan dan lahan yang relatif luas. Namun, kebakaran hutan dan lahan yang relatif luas juga terjadi pada provinsi yang tidak memiliki perkebunan sawit seperti Lampung, Sulawesi Utara, Gorontalo, Maluku, Jawa Timur, Jawa Tengah, dan Jawa Barat. Bahkan Kalimantan Utara dan Bengkulu yang merupakan daerah provinsi ekspansi sawit, dan luas kebakaran hutan dan lahan relatif kecil dibandingkan dengan provinsi Jawa Tengah dan Nusa Tenggara Timur yang tidak ada pengembangan kebun sawit.

Dengan demikian, sama seperti fenomena di berbagai negara, kebakaran hutan dan lahan di Indonesia juga tidak secara sistematis dan spesifik terkait dengan pengembangan kebun sawit. Provinsi-provinsi yang merupakan sentra atau bukan sentra sawit, kebakaran hutan dan lahan juga terjadi. Kebakaran hutan dan lahan juga tidak sistematis dan spesifik lahan gambut. Provinsi Jawa Timur, Nusa Tenggara Barat dan Jawa Barat tidak memiliki lahan gambut, juga terjadi kebakaran hutan dan lahan yang relatif luas.

Kebakaran hutan dan lahan yang tidak terkait lahan gambut juga terkonfirmasi sebaran titik api (hot spot) yang terjadi dalam periode Juli-November 2015 (Gambar). Sebaran titik api dilahan gambut justru lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan titik api di luar lahan gambut.

Figure Distribution of hot spots on peatland and outside peatland in the July-November 2015 period in Indonesia

Distribution of hot spots on peatland and outside peatland in the July-November 2015 period in Indonesia

Source : Global forest watch

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