Oil palm plantations are monocultural and Indonesia’s oil palm plantations are the largest monocultures in the world

Perkebunan kelapa sawit Indonesia merupakan monokultur terluas di dunia

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All of the world’s agricultural commodities cultivated in agricultural areas are monocultures. Wheat, corn, beans, rice and others throughout the world are cultivated by monoculture. According to USDA (2017) data, of the 224.28 million hectares of the world’s wheat cultivation, 30.2 million hectares are located in India, EU has 26.9 million hectares, China has24.3 million hectares, Russia, 26.9 million hectares, the US 17.7 million hectares and Australia has 12.9 million hectares.

Meanwhile, of about 177.45 million hectares of corn cultivation in the world, 35 million hectares are located in the US. China has 36 million hectares, Brazil 16.4 million hectares, and India 9.5 million hectares. Meanwhile, of about 159 million hectares of rice cultivated in the world, 44.5 million hectares are located in India. China has 30.3 million hectares and Indonesia12.1 million hectares.

Of the world vegetable oil production, Indonesia’s palm oil plantations cover an area of 11.6 million hectares in 2016, smaller than soybean farms of major soybean-producing countries (Figure). In the United States, the soybean-cultivation area reached 33.6 million hectares in 2016, and in Brazil it is about 33.8 million hectares, which is three times larger than Indonesia’s oil palm plantations. In Argentina, the area under ​​soybean cultivation reached 19.5 million hectares and in India about 11.4 million hectares.

Thus, Indonesia’s oil palm plantations are not the largest monoculture commodity in the world, either among all commodities or in the world’s vegetable oil commodity group. For a comparison, Indonesia’s palm oil plantation area is onlyone-third of the land area of ​​soy bean productionin the United States or Brazil. While in Indonesia, the rice-farming area is still larger than oil palm plantations.

Semua komoditas pertanian dunia yang dibudidayakan pada kawasan budidaya pertanian merupakan monokultur. Gandum, jagung, kacang-kacangan, padi dan lain-lain di seluruh negara dibudidayakan secara monokultur. Menurut data USDA (2017), dari 224,28 juta hektar gandum dunia berada di India 30,2 juta hektar, EU 26,9 juta hektar, China 24,3 juta hektar, Russia 26,9 juta hektar, USA 17,7 juta hektar dan Australia 12,9 juta hektar.

Sementara dari sekitar 177,45 juta hektar jagung dunia, berada di Amerika Serikat 35 juta hektar, China 36 juta hektar, Brazil 16,4 dan India 9,5 juta hektar. Sedangkan dari 159 juta hektar padi dunia, berada di India 44,5 juta hektar, China 30,3 juta hektar dan Indonesia 12,1 juta hektar.

Untuk tanaman minyak nabati dunia, perkebunan kelapa sawit Indonesia luasnya tahun 2016 sekitar 11,6 juta hektar, lebih kecil daripada kebun kacang kedelai yang dimiliki oleh negara-negara produsen utama minyak kedelai (Gambar). Di Amerika Serikat pada tahun 2016, luas kebun kedelai adalah 33,6 juta hektar, sementara di Brazil sekitar 33,8 juta hektar yang berarti tiga kali lebih luas dari kebun sawit Indonesia. Di Argentina luas kebun kedelai adalah 19,5 juta hektar dan di India sekitar 11,4 juta hektar.

Dengan demikian, perkebunan kelapa sawit Indonesia bukanlah komoditi monokultur terluas di dunia baik antar jenis komoditi maupun dalam kelompok komoditi tanaman minyak nabati dunia. Perbandingan dunia luas kebun sawit Indonesia hanya sepertiga luas kebun kacang kedelai Amerika Serikat atau Brazil. Sementara secara nasional (di Indonesia) luas tanaman padi masih lebih luas daripada kebun sawit.

 

Figure Soybean area (monoculture) area in major countries

monoculture

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