Expansion of oil palm plantations biggest cause of global deforestation

Ekspansi perkebunan kelapa sawit merupakan penyebab utama deforestasi dunia.

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The scale of global deforestation in 1980 had already reached 701 million hectares (Matthew, 1983). Then in the 1990-2008 periods the total global deforestation was 239 million hectares (European Commission, 2013).

The cause of the 1990-2008 global deforestation (Table) was cattle ranch expansion (24.3 percent) especially in South America, fires (17.2 percent), soybean farm expansion (5.6 percent), the expansion of corn farms and sugarcane plantations (3.2 percent), while global oil palm expansion was only 2.3 percent.

Table :   Cause of global deforestation 1990-2008

DriverDeforestation Width
Million haPercent
Cattle ranches (South America)5824.3
Fires4117.2
Soybean farm expansion ( South America)13.45.6
Infrastructure development93.8
Corn expansion (South America)7.53.1
Oil palm expansion5.52.3
Logging/ wood production4.51.9
Rice field expansion4.31.8
Sugarcane expansion3.31.4
Other agricultural use35.514.9
Others5824.3
Total239100.0

Source: European Commission, 2013

Based on this data, oil palm plantations are not the main cause of global deforestation. Development of grazing areas, sugarcane plantations, soybean, rapeseed and sunflower farms are the main cause of global deforestation

Luas deforestasi global sebelum tahun 1980 sudah mencapai 701 juta hektar (Matthew, 1983). Kemudian pada periode 1990-2008 total deforestasi global 239 juta hektar (European Commission, 2013).

Pemicu deforestasi global 1990-2008 (Tabel) adalah ekspansi ranch sapi (24 persen) khususnya di Amerika Selatan, kebakaran (17 persen), ekspansi kebun kedelai (5,6 persen), ekspansi kebun jagung dan tebu (3,2 persen). Sedangkan ekspansi perkebunan kelapa sawit dunia hanya 2,3 persen.

Tabel.   Pemicu Deforestasi Global 1990-2008

DriverLuas Deforestasi
Juta HektarPersen
Ranch Sapi (Amerika Selatan)5824,3
Kebakaran4117,2
Perluasan Kebun Kedelai (Amerika Selatan)13,45,6
Pembangunan Infrastruktur93,8
Perluasan Jagung (Amerika Selatan)7,53,1
Perluasan Kebun Sawit5,52,3
Logging + Wood product4,51,9
Perluasan Areal Padi4,31,8
Perluasan Tebu3,31,4
Pertanian Lainnya35,514,9
Lain-lain5824,3
Jumlah239100,0

Sumber : European Commission, 2013

Berdasarkan data tersebut perkebunan kelapa sawit global bukanlah pemicu utama deforestasi global. Pembangunan padang penggembalaan, perkebunan tebu, kacang kedelai, rapeseed dan sunflower menjadi pemicu utama deforestasi global

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