The income of oil palm farmers is only slightly above the rural poverty line and is not sustainable.

Pendapatan petani sawit hanya sedikit di atas garis kemiskinan pedesaan dan tidak berkelanjutan.

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Oil palm farmers enjoy per capita incomes substantially above the rural poverty line (Table). In 2016, for example, the poverty line stood at Rp 4 million per capita/year. The income of oil palm farmers (per 2 hectares with an average family of four) reached Rp 10.5 million per capita/year or Rp 42 million per family/2 hectares/year. The income of oil palm farmers is not only far above the poverty line in villages and towns, but it has also grown faster. The income of both plasma farmers and self-help farmers approximately doubled in the period 2009-2016.

Table :   Comparison of the incomes of oil palm farmers and poverty line (million rupiah/capita/year)

YearPoverty Line1Average Income of Oil Palm Farmers2
UrbanRural
20092.662.153.58
20102.792.25.01
20113.162.686.27
20123.322.887.86
20133.463.047.81
20164.374.1210.58

Source: 1BPS, 2PASPI 2014

In addition, the income of the oil palm farmers is sustainable. The income of oil palm farmers is not from seasonal agricultural activities such as food crop farmers whose income can fluctuate every season. The income of oil palm farmers is relatively stable and even tends to increase along with the growing age of the oil palm plantation. Also, the plantation is guaranteed for up to 25 years. With such sources and income patterns, the oil palm farmers can guarantee the welfare of their family members, especially the education of their children.

Petani petani sawit telah memiliki pendapatan per kapita lebih yang lebih tinggi dari garis kemiskinan pedesaan (Tabel 1). Pada tahun 2016 misalnya, garis kemiskinan adalah sekitar Rp 4 juta/kapita/tahun. Pendapatan petani sawit (per 2 hektar dengan rata-rata anggota keluarga 4 orang) telah mencapai Rp. 10,5 juta/kapita/tahun atau Rp 42 juta/keluarga/2 hektar/tahun. Pendapatan petani sawit bukan hanya sudah jauh di atas garis kemiskinan baik desa maupun kota, tetapi juga bertumbuh cepat makin menjauh dari garis kemiskinan. Pendapatan petani sawit baik plasma maupun swadaya meningkat sekitar dua kali lipat dalam periode 2009-2016.

Tabel.   Perbandingan Pendapatan Petani Sawit dan Garis Kemiskinan (Rp. Juta/Kapita/Tahun)

TahunGaris Kemiskinan1Rataan Pendapatan Petani Sawit2
KotaDesa
20092,662,153,58
20102,792,205,01
20113,162,686,27
20123,322,887,86
20133,463,047,81
20164,374,1210,58

Sumber : 1BPS, 2PASPI 2014

Selain itu, pendapatan petani sawit tersebut bersifat berkelanjutan (sustainability income). Pendapatan petani sawit bukan dari kegiatan pertanian musiman seperti petani tanaman pangan yang pendapatannya dapat berfluktuasi setiap musim. Pendapatan petani sawit relatif stabil bahkan cenderung meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya umur kebun sawit dan relatif terjamin sampai 25 tahun (replanting). Dengan sumber dan pola pendapatan petani yang demikian akan menjamin anggota keluarganya khususnya biaya pendidikan anak-anak petani.

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