The transportation of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) and crude palm oil (CPO) causes severe damage to roads in oil palm plantations.

Pengangkutan TBS dan CPO menyebabkan tingginya kerusakan jalan di daerah-daerah perkebunan sawit.

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Roads are public facilities, the provision of which can only be carried out by the government in accordance to the prevailing laws and regulations. Roads are needed both by residents and for the movement of all goods and services between regions. Therefore, the provision of road infrastructure, in quantity, quality and coverage, is needed in accordance to development.

Based on data from the Public Works and Public Housing Ministry in 2015, the number of damaged roads, with either severe or light damage, reaches 6 percent of the total length of the national roads. If we look at the distribution of damaged roads in each province (Table), the highest percentage of damaged roads is in North Sumatra, Papua, West Papua, Central Sulawesi and Central Kalimantan. Meanwhile, the lowest percentage occurred in the provinces of North Maluku, Bangka Belitung, NTB and West Sulawesi.

Table:            Percentage of damaged roads in each province

ProvincePercentage of damaged roadsProvincePercentage of damaged roads
North Sumatra18.98West Sumatra1.79
Papua*10.29Central Java*1.74
West Papua*6.52Maluku*1.73
Central Sulawesi*6.30Banten*1.71
Central Kalimantan6.15Gorontalo*1.37
East Kalimantan5.58East Nusa Tenggara*1.30
Southeast Sulawesi*5.28West Java*1.08
West Kalimantan4.78East Java*0.97
Aceh*4.15South Kalimantan0.81
South Sulawesi*4.00Jambi0.67
North Sulawesi*3.80West Sulawesi *0.18
Riau3.42West Nusa Tenggara*0.09
Lampung*2.89Yogyakarta*0.06
South Sumatera2.38Bangka Belitung*0.05
Bengkulu*1.82North Maluku*0.04
Jakarta*0.03National6.05

Source: Public Works and Public Housing Ministry, 2015 *non oil palm centers

Based on the distribution of road damage, it can be seen that road damage is not related to the presence or absence of oil palm plantations. Provinces that do not have oil palm plantations such as Papua, West Papua, Central Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi also have a relatively large percentage of damaged roads. In contrast, the areas of oil palm plantations such as Jambi and South Kalimantan actually have a relatively small percentage of road damage

Jalan raya merupakan fasilitas publik yang penyediaannya hanya dapat dilakukan oleh pemerintah sesuai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku. Jalan raya sangat diperlukan baik oleh penduduk maupun untuk pergerakan semua barang dan jasa antar daerah. Oleh sebab itu, penyediaan infrastruktur jalan baik kuantitas, kualitas maupun jangkauan sangat diperlukan sesuai dengan perkembangan kegiatan pembangunan.

Berdasarkan data Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat Republik Indonesia 2015, kategori jalan raya rusak (berat dan ringan) secara nasional mencapai 6 persen dari panjang jalan nasional. Jika dilihat distribusi jalan rusak di setiap provinsi (Tabel) persentase tertinggi jalan rusak adalah Sumatera Utara, Papua, Papua Barat, Sulawesi Tengah, dan Kalimantan Tengah. Sedangkan persentase yang paling rendah terjadi pada provinsi Maluku Utara, Bangka Belitung, Yogyakarta, NTB dan Sulawesi Barat.

Tabel.   Persentase Jalan Rusak di Setiap Provinsi

ProvinsiPersentase Jalan RusakProvinsiPersentase Jalan Rusak
Sumatera Utara18,98Sumatera Barat1,79
Papua*10,29Jawa Tengah*1,74
Papua Barat*6,52Maluku*1,73
Sulawesi Tengah*6,30Banten*1,71
Kalimantan Tengah6,15Gorontalo*1,37
Kalimantan Timur5,58Nusa Tenggara Timur*1,30
Sulawesi Tenggara*5,28Jawa Barat*1,08
Kalimantan Barat4,78Jawa Timur*0,97
Aceh*4,15Kalimantan Selatan0,81
Sulawesi Selatan*4,00Jambi0,67
Sulawesi Utara*3,80Sulawesi Barat*0,18
Riau3,42Nusa Tenggara Barat*0,09
Lampung*2,89Yogyakarta*0,06
Sumatera Selatan2,38Bangka Belitung*0,05
Bengkulu*1,82Maluku Utara*0,04
DKI Jakarta*0,03Nasional6,05

Sumber :    Kemenpupera 2015 *bukan sentra sawit

Berdasarkan distribusi kerusakan jalan tersebut, dapat dilihat bahwa kerusakan jalan tidak berhubungan dengan ada tidaknya perkebunan kelapa sawit. Provinsi yang tidak memiliki perkebunan kelapa sawit seperti Papua, Papua Barat, Sulawesi Tengah, dan Sulawesi Tenggara juga memiliki persentase jalan rusak yang relatif besar. Sebaliknya daerah sentra sawit seperti Jambi dan Kalimantan Selatan justru memiliki persentase kerusakan jalan yang relatif kecil.

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