Indonesia does not have a sustainable oil palm plantation management policy.

Indonesia tidak memiliki kebijakan nasional pengelolaan perkebunan kelapa sawit berkelanjutan.

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The Indonesian government has laid the foundation for development by setting a national policy on development management, which includes the oil palm sector.

This national policy takes the form of Government Regulations in Lieu of Law (PP) that pertain to spatial planning, land use, technology, management, human resources, the environment, products, and other aspects (Table 1).

The mechanism for obtaining land for plantations is stipulated in the Agrarian Principles Law, the Plant Cultivation System Law, the Spatial Planning Law, the Forestry Law and the Plantation Law, as well as the Environmental Management Law.

The guidelines for plantation managements are also enforced through Government Regulations (PP) such as those on pesticides, seedlings, agricultural equipment and machinery.

Table 1:   Governance and Policy for Sustainable Development of Oil Palm Plantations in Indonesia

Regulations/ decrees / policiesIssue
PP 47/2012Social and Environmental Responsibilities of Limited Liability Company
PP 28/2004FoodSafety, Quality and Nutrition
PP 69/1999Food Labels and Advertisement
PP 57/2016Peatland Ecosystem Management and Protection
PP 27/2012Environmental Permits
PP 28/2011Management of Nature Reserves and Natural Conservation Areas
PP 11/2010Leveling and Utilization of Idle Land
PP 10/2010Procedures for Conversion of Allocations and Functions of Forest Areas
PP 41/1999Air Pollution Control
PP 8/1999Wild Flora and Fauna Exploitation
PP 7/1999Preserving Flora and Fauna Species
PP 40/1996Right to Cultivate, Right to Build and Right to Use Land
PP 44/1995Crop Seeding
PP 14/1993Establishment of Workers Social Security
PP 31/2009Protection for Geographical Areasof Product Plantations of Specific Locations
PP 51/2007Geographical Indication
PP 8/2001FertilizersforCrop Cultivation
PP 85/1999Management of Hazardous and Toxic Wastes
PP 6/1995Crop Protection
PP 7/1973Supervision of Pesticide Circulation, Storage and Use
No. 33/Permentan/OT.140/7/2006Plantation Revitalization Programs
No. 98/Permentan/OT.140/9/2013Guidelines for Plantation Permits
No. 58/Permentan/OT.140/8/2007Implementation of National Standardization System in the Agriculture Sector
No. 07/Permentan/OT.140/2/2009Guidelines for Plantation Business Estimates
No. 14/Permentan/OT.110/2/2009Guidelines onUtilizingPeatlands for Oil Palm Cultivation
No. 11/Permentan/OT.140/3/2015Certification System for Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO)
No. 87/M-IND/PER/12/2013Implementation of Mandatory Indonesian National Standards for Palm Cooking Oil
No. 382/MENKES/PER/VI/1989Food Registration
No. 1496.1/Kpts/OT.100/10/2003Classification of Plantation Companies
No. 633/Kpts/OT.140/10/2004Guidelines for Criteria and Standardized Classification of the Industrial Area of the PlantationSociety(Kimbun)
No. 75/M-IND/PER/7/2010Guidelines for Processed Food Production (Good Manufacturing Practices)

With particular regard to the principles, standards and indicators of sustainable oil palm plantations in Indonesia, the Agriculture Ministry issued Ministerial Decree No. 11/Permentan/OT.140/3/2015 on Mandatory Certification System for Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO). It also has a voluntary certification system called the Roundtable Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO).

In other words, Indonesia’s oil palm plantations are already equipped with a set of policies and regulations on sustainable management. It is worth noting that oil palm is the only one out of the thousands of commodities/products in Indonesia that has detailed policies on sustainable management; it is perhaps even the only one out of millions of global commodities/products to possess such a distinct policy.

Sejak awal pemerintah telah meletakan dasar-dasar kebijakan pengelolaan pembangunan nasional termasuk sektor perkebunan kelapa sawit.

Kebijakan nasional yang dimaksud berupa Peraturan Pelaksanaan Undang-Undang dituangkan dalam Peraturan Pemerintah yang menyangkut mulai dari kebijakan tata kelola ruang, lahan, teknologi, manajemen, sumber daya manusia, lingkungan, produk dan lain-lain (Tabel 1).

Bagaimana mekanisme perolehan lahan untuk perkebunan telah diatur dalam Undang-Undang Pokok Agraria, Undang-Undang Sistem Budidaya Tanaman, Undang-Undang Tata Ruang, Undang-Undang Kehutanan, Undang-Undang Perkebunan dan Undang-Undang Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup.

Demikian juga bagaimana menggunakan input dalam perkebunan juga telah diatur dalam Peraturan Pemerintah antara lain tentang Pestisida, Bibit, Alat dan Mesin Pertanian dan lain-lain.

Khusus untuk prinsip-prinsip, standard dan indikator perkebunan kelapa sawit berkelanjutan di Indonesia dikenal sebagai ISPO (Indonesia Sustainable Palm Oil) yang diatur dalam Permentan No. 11/Permentan/OT.140/3/2015 tentang Sistem Sertifikasi Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan Indonesia (ISPO) yang bersifat wajib (mandatory). Selain itu juga ada sertifikasi sukarela yakni RSPO (Rountable Sustainable Palm Oil).

Dengan kata lain, perkebunan kelapa sawit Indonesia telah memiliki kebijakan dan tata kelola perkebunan kelapa sawit berkelanjutan. Bahkan baru kelapa sawit yang memiliki sistem dan tata kelola berkelanjutan yang demikian diantara ribuan komoditi/produk di Indonesia, dan mungkin juga dari jutaan komoditi/produk di seluruh dunia.

Tabel 1.   Kebijakan dan Tata Kelola Pembangunan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan di Indonesia

Regulasi/ kebijakanTentang
PP 47/2012Tanggung Jawab Sosial dan Lingkungan Perseroan Terbatas
PP 28/2004Keamanan, Mutu dan Gizi Pangan
PP 69/1999Label dan Iklan Pangan
PP 57/2016Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Ekosistem Gambut
PP 27/2012Izin Lingkungan
PP 28/2011Pengelolaan Kawasan Suaka Alam dan Kawasan Pelestarian Alam
PP 11/2010Penertiban Tanah Terlantar
PP 10/2010Tata Cara Perubahan Peruntukan dan Fungsi Kawasan Hutan
PP 41/1999Pengendalian Pencemaran Udara
PP 8/1999Pemanfaatan Tumbuhan dan Satwa Liar
PP 7/1999Pengawetan Jenis Tumbuhan dan Satwa
PP 40/1996HGU, Hak Milik, Hak Pakai Atas Tanah
PP 44/1995Perbenihan Tanaman
PP 14/1993Penyelenggaraan Jamsostek
PP 31/2009Perlindungan Wilayah Geografis Penghasil Produk Perkebunan Spesifik
PP 51/2007Indikasi Geografis
PP 8/2001Pupuk Budidaya Tanaman
PP 85/1999Pengelolaan Limbah Berbahaya dan Racun
PP 6/1995Perlindungan Tanaman
PP 7/1973Pengawasan Atas Peredaran Penggunaan Pestisida
No. 33/Permentan/O.T 140/7/2006Revitalisasi Perkebunan
No. 98/Permentan/Q.T 140/9/2013Pedoman Izin Usaha Perkebunan.
No. 58/Permentan/OT.140/8/2007Sistem Standarisasi Nasional Pertanian/Perkebunan
No. 07/Permentan/OT.140/2/2009Pedoman Penilaian Usaha Perkebunan
No. 14/Permentan/OT.110/2/2009Pedoman Pemanfaatan Lahan Gambut untuk Budidaya Kelapa Sawit
No. 11/Permentan/OT.140/3/2015Sistem Sertifikasi Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan Indonesia (ISPO)
No. 87/M-IND/PER/12/2013Pemberlakuan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) Minyak Goreng Sawit Secara Wajib
No. 382/MENKES/PER/VI/1989Pendaftaran Makanan
No. 1496.1/Kpts/OT.100/10/2003Klasifikasi Perusahaan Perkebunan
No. 633/Kpts/OT.140/10/2004Pedoman Kriteria dan Standarisasi Klasifikasi Kimbun
No. 75/M-IND/PER/7/2010Pedoman Cara Berproduksi Pangan Olahan yang Baik (GNP)

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