Oil palm plantations in Indonesia are owned only by large corporations

Perkebunan kelapa sawit Indonesia hanya dimiliki korporasi-korporasi besar.

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The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from about 300,000 hectares in 1980 to about 11.6 million hectares in 2016 (Agriculture Ministry, 2015). During this process, the private individual-run oil palm plantations have shown rapid, some would say revolutionary, growth.

The nucleus estate smallholder (PIR) program run by the government is the entry point for individual participation in the national oil palm plantation development (Badrun, 2010, Sipayung, 2012). The PIRs consist of assisted PIRs, local PIRs and special PIRs set up by the government from 1977-1986; then followed by transmigration PIRs within the period 1985-1995; credit cooperatives(PIR/KKPA) 1995-2005 and plantation revitalization PIRs since 2005. The PIR policy and program series, is not only effective for smallholder plantations participating in PIRs, but it also stimulates and encourages other farmers (excluding participants) to run oil palm plantations independently (independent palm farmers).

The successful implementation of the PIR, has transformed the composition of national palm oil plantations (Figure).

In 1980, the share of private individual-run oil palm plantations was only 2 percent. But by 2016 this share had reached about 41 percent. Projected toward 2020, the share of people’s oil palm plantations will reach 50 percent, beyond the share of corporate oil palm plantations, which is expected to be 45 percent.

So, oil palm plantations in Indonesia do not only belong to large corporations (private or state-owned). In contrast, the share of private individual-run oil palm plantations shows a revolutionary increase and will account for the largest share in the future.

Luas perkebunan kelapa sawit Indonesia telah meningkat dari sekitar 300 ribu hektar tahun 1980 menjadi sekitar 11,6 juta hektar tahun 2016 (Kementerian Pertanian, 2015). Dalam perkembangan tersebut, perkebunan kelapa sawit rakyat menunjukkan pertumbuhan yang cepat bahkan tergolong revolusioner.

Program perkebunan inti rakyat (Nucleus Estate Smallholder, NES) yang dilaksanakan pemerintah merupakan pintu masuk (entry point) keikutsertaan perkebunan rakyat dalam perkebunan kelapa sawit nasional (Badrun, 2010; Sipayung, 2012). PIR yang dimaksud mencakup PIR Berbantuan, PIR Lokal, PIR Khusus yang dilaksanakan pemerintah tahun 1977-1986; kemudian dilanjutkan PIR Transmigrasi dalam periode 1985-1995; PIR Kredit Koperasi Para Anggota/KKPA tahun 1995-2005 maupun PIR Revitalisasi perkebunan sejak tahun 2005. Rangkaian kebijakan dan program PIR tersebut, bukan hanya berhasil untuk perkebunan rakyat yang menjadi peserta PIR, tetapi juga merangsang dan meyakinkan petani lain (di luar peserta) untuk masuk pada perkebunan kelapa sawit secara mandiri (petani sawit mandiri).

Keberhasilan pelaksanaan PIR tersebut, telah merubah komposisi pengusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit nasional yang revolusioner (Gambar).

Pada tahun 1980, pangsa sawit rakyat hanya 2 persen. Namun pada tahun 2016 pangsa sawit rakyat telah mencapai sekitar 41 persen. Diproyeksikan menuju tahun 2020 pangsa sawit rakyat akan mencapai 50 persen melampaui pangsa sawit swasta yang diperkirakan akan menjadi 45 persen.

Dengan demikian, perkebunan kelapa sawit Indonesia bukan hanya dimiliki oleh korporasi besar (swasta, BUMN). Sebaliknya, pangsa sawit rakyat menunjukkan peningkatan yang revolusioner dan akan menguasai pangsa terbesar di masa yang akan datang.

Figure The changes in share of private individual-run oil palm plantations in the national oil palm plantation development

The changes in share of private individual-run oil palm plantations in the national oil palm plantation development

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