Indonesian oil palm plantations equal deforestation.

Perkebunan kelapa sawit Indonesia secara netto merupakan suatu deforestasi.

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Looking into the origin of oil palm plantation areas in Indonesia, it can be concluded that expansion of oil palm plantations is not the main trigger of deforestation in Indonesia. Data from Citra Land Set (Gunarso, et al, 2012) and other research show the origin of oil palm plantations from both the results of deforestation and reforestation (Table).

Table:   Origin of Oil Palm Plantation Areas in Indonesia (hectares)

YearOil palm areas from deforestation2. 4Oil palm areas from reforestation 2. 5Net
reforestation
 Up to 20001,055,5811,858,965803,384
 2001-2005402,4841,354,844952,360
 2006-20101,097,8683,009,0481,911,180
 2011-2013 1. 31,686,2301,686,230
Total2,555,9337,909,0875,353,154

1Statistics of Indonesian Oil Palm Plantations.
2Gunarso, et al (2012) Analysis of Land Covers and its Conversion into Oil Palm Plantations in Indonesia.
3 Since the issuance of the moratorium based on Presidential Instruction (Inpres) No. 10/2011, Inpres No. 6/2013, Inpres No. 8/2015), forest is no longer being converted into new oil palm plantations.
4 Deforestation (conversion of exploited production forest into oil palm plantations).
5 Reforestation (conversion of farm land/neglected land into oil palm plantations).

 

The above table shows that oil palm plantation areas from deforestation (conversion of the exploited production forest) only amounts to about 2.5 million ha, while from reforestation  (conversion of farm land/neglected land) reach 7.9 million hectares. Therefore, the net expansion (reforestation/deforestation) of oil palm plantations in Indonesia comes from reforestation (increasing the areas for carbon stocks) covering 5.3 million ha.

Consequently, besides not being the main trigger of deforestation, Indonesian oil palm plantations are developed from reforestation. Accusations that expansion of oil palm plantations is the main trigger of deforestation is not backed up by data. Oil palm plantations even rehabilitate damaged ecology and regional economies caused by previous logging.

Dengan menelusuri asal-usul lahan kebun sawit di Indonesia, menyimpulkan ekspansi kebun sawit bukan pemicu deforestasi di Indonesia. Berdasarkan data Citra Land Set (Gunarso, dkk. 2012) dan penelitian lainnya diperoleh berapa besar lahan sawit hasil deforestasi maupun dari reforestasi (Tabel).

Tabel.   Asal-Usul Lahan Kebun Sawit di Indonesia (hektar)

TahunLahan Sawit Asal Deforestasi 2, 4Lahan Sawit Asal Reforestasi 2, 5Netto
Reforestasi
 s.d 20001.055.5811.858.965803.384
 2001-2005402.4841.354.844952.360
 2006-20101.097.8683.009.0481.911.180
 2011-2013 1, 31.686.2301.686.230
 Total2.555.9337.909.0875.353.154

1 Statistik Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Indonesia,
2 Gunarso, dkk (2012) Analisis Penutupan Lahan dan Perubahannya menjadi Kebun Kelapa Sawit di Indonesia,
3 Sejak terbitnya Moratorium (Inpres No. 10/2011, Inpres No. 6/2013, Inpres No.8/2015) tidak ada lagi konversi hutan menjadi kebun sawit yang baru,
4 Deforestasi (konversi Hutan Produksi Terganggu menjadi Kebun Sawit),
5 Reforestasi (konversi Lahan Pertanian/Lahan Terlantar menjadi Kebun Sawit).

 

Berdasarkan tabel di atas, menunjukkan bahwa lahan sawit yang berasal dari deforestasi (dari konversi hutan produksi terganggu) hanya sekitar 2,5 juta hektar, sedangkan dari reforestasi (dari konversi lahan pertanian dan lahan terlantar) sebesar 7,9 juta hektar. Sehingga secara netto (reforestasi – deforestasi) perluasan kebun sawit di Indonesia adalah reforestasi (meningkatkan stok karbon wilayah) seluas 5,3 juta hektar.

Dengan demikian perkebunan kelapa sawit Indonesia selain bukan pemicu utama (driver) deforestasi juga merupakan suatu reforestasi. Tudingan bahwa ekspansi kebun sawit merupakan pemicu deforestasi utama tidak didukung data. Kebun sawit justru menghijaukan kembali ekologi dan ekonomi wilayah yang rusak akibat logging pada masa sebelumnya.

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