Oil palm plantations neglect small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the regions.

Perkebunan kelapa sawit mengabaikan Usaha Kecil Menengah (UKM) lokal/daerah.

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Oil palm plantations located in 190 regencies are an economic sector based on local resources. One of the important actors in oil palm plantations is the family-run oil palm business (part of SMEs). The progress of the family-run oil palm business increased rapidly from only 142,000 in 1990 to 2.2 million units in 2016 (Figure 1). The development of these oil palm SMEs is revolutionary and has been carried out without burdening the government budget.

Aside from oil palm farmers, many activities in the supply of goods and services related to oil palm plantations and their employees involve SMEs. Activities such as the procurement of fertilizers, pesticides, plantation tools and machinery, transportation of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and CPO, the need for foodstuffs, especially food for employees and the need for stationery and other supplies involve local SMEs. The more developed and mature oil palm plantations the more SMEs are involved in oil palm plantations.

Based on a PASPI study (2014), the average number of SMEs that supply goods and services for oil palm plantations has grown from 565 to 707 SMEs per 100,000 hectares of productive trees (TM), both results of the increase in the area size of ​​TM and the age of TM (Figure 2).

The participation of SMEs in the palm oil industry, either as oil palm plantation actors or as oil palm plantation suppliers, has created new SME communities in rural areas. These new SME communities are more qualified because they have developed on their own initiative, are self-financing and are based on local resources.

In other words, oil palm plantations encourage the development of local SMEs in all 190 regencies. In fact, oil palm plantations can only grow rapidly with the support of local SMEs

Perkebunan kelapa sawit yang berada pada 190 kabupaten merupakan sektor ekonomi yang berbasis pada sumber daya lokal. Salah satu aktor penting dari perkebunan kelapa sawit adalah usaha keluarga petani sawit (bagian dari UKM). Perkembangan usaha keluarga petani sawit meningkat cepat dari hanya 142 ribu unit tahun 1990 menjadi 2,2 juta unit tahun 2016 (Gambar 1). Perkembangan UKM petani sawit tersebut, sangat revolusioner dan dilakukan tanpa membebani anggaran pemerintah.

Selain petani sawit, banyak kegiatan penyediaan barang dan jasa yang terkait dengan perkebunan kelapa sawit dan karyawannya melibatkan UKM. Kegiatan seperti pengadaan pupuk, pestisida, alat dan mesin perkebunan, pengangkutan TBS dan CPO, kebutuhan sembako khususnya bahan pangan karyawan dan kebutuhan alat tulis kantor melibatkan UKM lokal. Semakin berkembang dan dewasa perkebunan kelapa sawit semakin banyak UKM yang teribat dalam perkebunan kelapa sawit.

Berdasarkan studi PASPI (2014), rataan jumlah UKM supplier barang dan jasa perkebunan kelapa sawit, mengalami pertumbuhan dari 565 menjadi 707 unit UKM per 100 ribu hektar TM baik akibat pertambahan luas TM maupun umur TM (Gambar 2).

Keikutsertaan UKM dalam industri minyak sawit baik sebagai aktor kebun sawit maupun sebagai aktor supplier kebun sawit, telah melahirkan masyarakat UKM baru di kawasan pedesaan. Masyarakat UKM baru tersebut, lebih berkualitas karena berkembang atas inisiatif sendiri, selffinancing dan berbasis sumber daya lokal.

Dengan kata lain, perkebunan kelapa sawit bukan hanya mendorong perkembangan UKM lokal pada 190 kabupaten. Bahkan, perkebunan kelapa sawit hanya mungkin berkembang pesat dengan dukungan UKM lokal tersebut.

Figure 1 The growth of oil palm farmer units in Indonesia

The growth of oil palm farmer units in Indonesia

*temporary figure, **estimate

Source : Agriculture Ministry

Figure 2 Progress of SMEs supplying goods and services to oil palm plantation

Progress of SMEs supplying goods and services to oil palm plantation

business unit/100,000 hectare of TM

Source : PASPI, 2014

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