Palm oil contains unstable fats that are not good for health.

Minyak sawit mengandung lemak jenuh dan tak jenuh yang tidak seimbang sehingga tidak baik untuk kesehatan tubuh.

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According to nutritionists, palm oil contains a stable proportion of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid (Table). The fatty acid composition of palm oil is saturated fatty acid that consists of 44 percent palmitic fatty acid, 5 percent stearic fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) that consists of 10 percent linoleic fatty acid and 0.4 percent alpha linolenic fatty acid. In fact, as a whole palm oil has the behavioral characteristics of monounsaturated oils (United States Department of Agriculture, 1979; Cottrell, 1991; Small, 1991; Choudhury et al., 1995; Kritchevsky et al., 2000; Ong and Goh, 2002; FAO, 2010; Hariyadi, 2010; GiriwonodanAndarwulan, 2016).

Table:   The composition of fatty acid in palm oil

Fatty acid% Total fatty acid
RangeAverage
Lauric acid (C12:0)0.1-1.00.2
Myristic acid (C14:0)0.9 0 1.51.1
Palmitic acid (C16:0)41.8-45.844.0
Palmitoleic acid (C16:1)0.1-0.30.1
Stearic acid (C18:0)4.2-5.14.5
Oleic acid (C18:1)37.3-40.839.2
Linoleic acid (C18:2)9.1-11.010.1
Linolenic acid (C18:3)0.0-0.60.4
Arakidonic acid (C20:0)0.2-0.70.4

Source: Hariyadi (2010)

The illustration above shows that palm oil has a stable composition of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid. Palm oil is not categorized as vegetable oil with the behavioral characteristics of saturated fatty acid. Instead, as a whole, it has the behavior of monounsaturated oils.

Menurut para ahli gizi, minyak sawit mengandung proporsi asam lemak jenuh (saturated fatty acid) dan asam lemak tak jenuh (unsaturated fatty acid) yang seimbang (Tabel). Komposisi asam lemak minyak sawit terdiri atas : asam lemak jenuh (44 persen asam lemak palmitat, 5 persen asam lemak stearic, asam lemak tak jenuh ikatan rangkap tunggal (monounsaturated fatty acid, MUFA) yakni 40 persen asam lemak oleic, dan asam lemak tak jenuh ikatan rangkap jamak (poly unsaturated fatty acid, PUFA) yakni 10 persen asam lemak linoleic dan 0,4 persen asam lemak alpha linolenic. Secara keseluruhan minyak sawit sesungguhnya memiliki karakteristik perilaku seperti monounsaturated oils (United States Department of Agriculture, 1979; Cottrell, 1991; Small, 1991; Choudhury et al., 1995; Kritchevsky et al., 2000; Ong and Goh, 2002; FAO, 2010; Hariyadi, 2010; Giriwono dan Andarwulan, 2016).

Tabel.     Komposisi Asam Lemak pada Minyak Sawit

 Asam Lemak% Terhadap Asam Lemak Total
KisaranRata-rata
Asam Laurat (C12:0)0,1-1,00,2
Asam Miristat (C14:0)0,9  0  1,51,1
Asam Palmitat (C16:0)41,8-45,844,0
Asam Palmitoleat (C16:1)0,1-0,30,1
Asam Stearate (C18:0)4,2-5,14,5
Asam Oleat (C18:1)37,3-40,839,2
Asam Linoleat (C18:2)9,1-11,010,1
Asam Linolenat (C18:3)0,0-0,60,4
Asam Arakidonat (C20:0)0,2-0,70,4

Sumber : Hariyadi (2010)

Uraian di atas menunjukkan bahwa minyak sawit memiliki komposisi asam lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tak jenuh yang seimbang. Minyak sawit tidak tergolong kepada minyak nabati yang berperilaku asam lemak jenuh. Melainkan secara keseluruhan lebih berperilaku sebagai asam lemak tak jenuh (monounsaturated oils).

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