Palm oil imports disadvantage developed countries.

Impor minyak sawit merugikan negara-negara maju.

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The benefits of Indonesia’s palm oil are not only enjoyed by the Indonesian people, but almost all the people of the world through that country’s palm oil exports. The main destinations of Indonesia’s palm oil exports are India, China, the European Union and other countries (Figure 1).

Palm oil as a vegetable oil is available in sufficient volume globally and at competitive prices. This is why palm oil is consumed in almost every country in the world.

The presence of palm oil also has reduced the problem of food-fuel tradeoff faced by developed countries including in the European Union. Based on an OECD analysis (2007), if the EU reduces 10 percent of itsfossil fuel consumption and replaces it with biofuels (as per the EU energy directive), the EU must convert 70 percent of its agricultural land into vegetable oil plantations.

Meanwhile, to substitute 10 percent of diesel with soy oil-based biodiesel, the United States must convert 30 percent of its agricultural land to soybean farming, which could disrupt the food security of the United States and the EU, even globally.

With the availability of palm oil in the world, the program to substitute fossil fuel with biodiesel can be done in the EU and United States, without having to convert agricultural land. This has been confirmed in the EU (Figure 2) where about 38 percent of EU palm oil imports are used for energy both biodiesel and electricity.

The availability of palm oil in developed countries has also created economic benefits for importing countries. In the EU, for example, the economic benefits created by the annual consumption of palm oil raised the EU’s GDP by 5.7 billion euros, providing government revenues of 2.6 billion euros and creating employment opportunities for 117,000 people (Table).

Table :   Economic benefits of using palm oil on the economy of the European Union

DescriptionValue
Impact on GDP (euro million) 
Indirect impact2,703
Indirect impact + consumption induction5,764
Impact on government revenues (euro million) 
Indirect impact1,227
Indirect impact+ consumption induction2.617
Impact on job opening (000 orang) 
Indirect impact67.1
Indirect impact + consumption induction117.2

Source: Europe Economics, 2014 the Economic Impact of Palm Oil Import in the EU

Manfaat minyak sawit Indonesia tidak hanya dinikmati oleh masyarakat Indonesia saja melainkan hampir seluruh masyarakat dunia ikut menikmatinya melalui kegiatan ekspor minyak sawit Indonesia keberbagai negara. Negara-negara utama tujuan ekspor minyak sawit Indonesia selama ini adalah India, China, European Union dan negara lainnya (Gambar 1). Minyak sawit sebagai minyak nabati yang tersedia dalam volume yang cukup secara global dan dengan harga kompetitif menyebabkan minyak sawit banyak dikonsumsi di hampir di setiap negara.

Kehadiran minyak sawit juga mengurangi masalah tradeoff fuelfood yang dihadapi negara-negara maju termasuk Uni Eropa. Sebagaimana analisis OECD (2007) jika EU mengurangi 10 persen saja konsumsi BBM fosil dan digantikan dengan biofuel (sebagaimana EU energy directive) Uni Eropa harus mengkonversi 70 persen lahan pertaniannya menjadi tanaman minyak nabati. Sedangkan untuk mensubsitusi 10 persen diesel dengan biodiesel berbasis kedelai, USA harus mengkonversi 30 persen lahan pertaniannya untuk kebun kedelai, sehingga akan mengganggu ketahanan pangan USA dan EU bahkan secara global.

Dengan ketersediaan minyak sawit secara internasional program subtitusi BBM fosil dengan biodiesel dapat dilakukan Uni Eropa dan USA tanpa mengkonversi lahan pertaniannya. Hal ini untuk Uni Eropa telah terkonfirmasi (Gambar 2) dimana sekitar 38 persen impor minyak sawit EU dipergunakan untuk energi baik biodiesel maupun listrik.

Ketersediaan minyak sawit di negara-negara maju juga menciptakan manfaat ekonomi di negara-negara importir. Untuk Uni Eropa misalnya, manfaat ekonomi yang tercipta di EU akibat penggunaan minyak sawit setiap tahun meningkatkan GDP Uni Eropa sebesar 5,7 miliar Euro, menciptakan penerimaan pemerintah 2,6 miliar Euro dan menciptakan kesempatan kerja 117 ribu orang (Tabel).

Tabel .   Manfaat Ekonomi Penggunaan Minyak Sawit pada Perekonomian Uni Eropa

UraianNilai
DAMPAK PADA GDP (euro juta) 
Dampak tidak langsung 2.703
Dampak tidak langsung + induksi konsumsi 5.764
DAMPAK PENERIMAAN PEMERINTAH (euro juta) 
Dampak tidak langsung 1.227
Dampak tidak langsung + induksi konsumsi 2.617
DAMPAK KESEMPATAN KERJA (000 orang) 
Dampak tidak langsung 67,1
Dampak tidak langsung + induksi konsumsi 117,2

Sumber :    Europe Economic, 2014 The Economic Impact Palm Oil Import in the EU

Figure 1. Indonesia’s palm oil exports by countries of destination

palm oil exports

Figure 2. The use of CPO by sector in the EU

The use of CPO by sector in the EU

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