Indonesian palm oil industry only exports raw materials.

Industri minyak sawit Indonesia hanya mengekspor bahan mentah.

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Despite its long history since the colonial era, Indonesia’s palm oil industry has only been accelerating since 2000, since the reform movement in 1998. In terms of time, the development of the palm oil industry in Indonesia has been different from that of the Malaysian palm oil industry, which developed earlier, or the European and United States vegetable oil industries, which have been developing for 100 years.

In the last 15 years the Indonesian palm oil industry has experienced a leap of development not only in area size but also in downstream industrialization. The industrialization of Indonesian palm oil is reflected in the changes of the composition of exported palm oil products (Table).

Table:       Composition of Indonesia’s palm oil exports (thousand tons)

YearCrude Palm Oil (CPO)Processed Palm Oil 
VolumeShare (%)VolumeShare (%) 
20088,37555.596,69044.41 
200910,17359.556,91240.45 
201010,00758.577,07841.43 
20119,76855.517,82844.49 
20128,09044.3910,13355.61 
20136,57731.0014,64069.00 
20145,78226.5715,97973.43 
20157,87229.8218,52970.18 
20165,42421.6019,68978.40 

Source: BPS, database PASPI

Palm oil products that Indonesia exported until 2011 were still dominated by Crude Palm Oil (CPO). However, after 2011 it changed. Processed palm oil exceeded the export volume of crude palm oil. Thus, the Indonesian palm oil industry has shifted from exporting crude palm oil to processed palm oil. Of course, the opportunity to further develop the downstream palm oil industry is still wide open.

Industri minyak sawit Indonesia meski memiliki sejarah panjang sejak masa kolonial, pada dasarnya baru memperoleh momentum percepatan perkembangan sejak tahun 2000 pasca reformasi 1998. Dari segi waktu, perkembangan industri minyak sawit di Indonesia berbeda dengan industri minyak sawit Malaysia yang telah lebih dahulu berkembang. Apalagi bila dibandingkan dengan industri minyak nabati Eropa atau Amerika Serikat yang telah berkembang sejak 100 tahun yang lalu.

Dalam lima belas tahun terakhir industri minyak sawit Indonesia telah mengalami lompatan perkembangan bukan hanya pada luas areal tetapi juga pada industrialisasi (hilirisasi). Industrialisasi minyak sawit Indonesia tercermin dari perubahan komposisi produk minyak sawit yang di ekspor (Tabel).

Tabel.   Komposisi Ekspor Minyak Sawit Indonesia (ribu ton)

TahunMinyak Sawit Mentah (CPO)Minyak Sawit Olahan
VolumePangsa (%)VolumePangsa (%)
20088.37555,596.69044,41
200910.17359,556.91240,45
201010.00758,577.07841,43
20119.76855,517.82844,49
20128.09044,3910.13355,61
20136.57731,0014.64069,00
20145.78226,5715.97973,43
20157.87229,8218.52970,18
20165.42421,6019.68978,40

Sumber : BPS, database PASPI

Produk minyak sawit yang di ekspor Indonesia sampai tahun 2011 memang masih didominasi oleh minyak sawit mentah (CPO). Namun, setelah tahun 2011 mengalami perubahan dimana minyak sawit olahan sudah melampaui volume ekspor minyak sawit mentah. Dengan demikian industri minyak sawit Indonesia telah beralih dari pengekspor minyak sawit mentah kepada minyak sawit olahan. Tentu saja peluang untuk memperdalam hilirisasi sawit (lebih hilir dari yang dicapai saat ini) masih terbuka luas ke depan.

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