The benefits generated by oil palm plantations are exclusively enjoyed by those directly involved in the oil palm plantations, i.e., plantation owners, employees and laborers.

Manfaat yang dihasilkan perkebunan kelapa sawit hanya dinikmati oleh mereka yang terlibat langsung dalam perkebunan kelapa sawit (eksklusifme), yakni pemilik kebun dan tenaga kerja/karyawan.

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In economic development, the impact of investment on a particular sector depends on the relation between investment and economic activity in the region. It has been mentioned earlier that growth of palm oil production has a strong correlation to and multiplier effect on other sectors.

Amzul’s 2011 study shows that increasing CPO production in CPO production centers in rural areas is also linked to and has a wide impact on rural sectors outside the oil palm plantations (non-farm economy). The 10 aforementioned sectors are as presented in Table.

If the CPO production increases (i.e. due to consumption, downstream investment and exports) the majority of the economic benefits it creates, about 60 percent, occurs in the areas of oil palm plantations and about 40 percent of those benefits occur in rural sectors outside of oil palm plantations such as with financial institutions, trades, restaurants, hotels, transportation, infrastructure and other sectors.

Table :       Rural sectors that develop as a result of oil palm plantations

RankSector
1Financial services
2Other services
3Trade, restaurants and hotels
4Basic chemicals and fertilizers
5Oil, gas and mining
6Transportation
7Infrastructure
8Food processing
9Electricity
10Other sectors

Source: Table I-O Indonesia; Amzul (2011)

This means the economic benefits created by the growth of oil palm plantations are not only enjoyed by the people and working communities on oil palm plantations, but also (40 percent) by communities working outside the oil palm plantations in rural areas.

The people working in oil palm plantations are also consumers of food and non-food products produced by urban and rural communities. Based on public expenditure data (BPS, 2016), the value of transactions between the people on the oil palm plantations and the urban communities reached Rap 336 trillion per year. Meanwhile, the transactions with rural communities amounted to Rp 92 trillion per year (Figure). This means the total transactions between the people on the oil palm plantations and in the communities outside the oil palm estates nationally reach Rp 428 trillion per year.

In other words, the growth of oil palm plantations in rural areas increases the capacity of the rural economy to generate output, income and employment opportunities on oil palm plantations and in other rural non-farms sectors. The multiplier impact of oil palm plantation development is also enjoyed by the urban sector, such as by financial institutions, restaurants and hotels, food processing and electric equipment and manufacturing sectors. Developing oil palm plantations does not only build rural areas but is also part of urban development.

It is very clear that the benefits of oil palm plantations are not only enjoyed by the communities directly involved in oil palm plantations but also communities that are not directly involved, both in rural and urban areas (inclusive growth).

Dalam pembangunan ekonomi dampak perkembangan investasi pada suatu sektor tergantung pada bagaimana keterkaitan investasi yang bersangkutan dengan kegiatan ekonomi di daerah yang bersangkutan. Telah dijelaskan sebelumnya bahwa pertumbuhan produksi minyak sawit memiliki keterkaitan dan multiplier yang kuat terhadap sumber daya lokal (local resources based).

Hasil penelitian Amzul (2011) menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan produksi CPO pada kawasan sentra produksi CPO di kawasan pedesaan juga terkait dan berdampak luas pada sektor-sektor pedesaan di luar perkebunan kelapa sawit (rural non-farm economy). Sepuluh sektor yang dimaksud tersebut adalah sebagaimana disajikan pada Tabel

Tabel. Sektor-Sektor Pedesaan yang Berkembang Akibat Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit

RankSektor
1Jasa keuangan
2Jasa lainnya
3Perdagangan, restoran dan hotel
4Kimia dasar dan pupuk
5Minyak, gas dan tambang
6Transportasi
7Infrastruktur
8Pengolahan makanan
9Peralatan listrik
10Sektor lainnya

Sumber: Tabel I-O Indonesia; Amzul (2011)

Apabila produksi CPO meningkat (misalnya akibat konsumsi, investasi hilir, ekspor) maka manfaat ekonomi yang diciptakannya sekitar 60 persen terjadi pada perkebunan kelapa sawit dan sekitar 40 persen manfaat tersebut terjadi di luar perkebunan kelapa sawit (sektor pedesaan) seperti lembaga keuangan, perdagangan/restoran, hotel, transportasi, infrastruktur, dan sektor-sektor lain. Hal ini berarti manfaat ekonomi yang diciptakan akibat pertumbuhan perkebunan kelapa sawit tidak hanya dinikmati oleh masyarakat pelaku/bekerja pada perkebunan kelapa sawit, melainkan sebagian (40 persen) dinikmati oleh masyarakat yang bekerja di luar perkebunan kelapa sawit di pedesaan.

Masyarakat yang bekerja pada perkebunan kelapa sawit adalah konsumen bagi produk-produk pangan maupun non pangan yang dihasilkan oleh masyarakat perkotaan dan pedesaan. Berdasarkan pengeluaran penduduk (BPS, 2016) nilai transaksi antara masyarakat kebun sawit dengan masyarakat perkotaan mencapai Rp. 336 triliun/tahun. Sementara transaksi dengan masyarakat pedesaan sebesar Rp. 92 triliun/tahun (Gambar). Hal ini berarti total transaksi antara masyarakat kebun sawit dengan masyarakat di luar kebun sawit secara nasional mencapai Rp. 428 triliun/tahun.

Dengan perkataan lain, pertumbuhan perkebunan kelapa sawit di kawasan pedesaan meningkatkan kapasitas perekonomian daerah pedesaan dalam menghasilkan output, pendapatan, dan kesempatan kerja baik pada perkebunan kelapa sawit maupun pada sektor lain (rural non-farm) di kawasan pedesaan. Bahkan dampak multiplier pembangunan perkebunan kelapa sawit, melainkan juga dinikmati sektor perkotaan seperti lembaga keuangan, restoran dan hotel, food processing dan electric equipment and manufacturing sector. Membangun perkebunan kelapa sawit bukan hanya membangun pedesaan tetapi juga bagian dari cara membangun perkotaan.

Kiranya sangat jelas bahwa manfaat perkebunan kelapa sawit tidak hanya dinikmati oleh masyarakat yang terlibat langsung dalam perkebunan kelapa sawit tetapi juga masyarakat yang tidak terlibat langsung pada perkebunan kelapa sawit, baik di kawasan pedesaan maupun perkotaan (inclusive growth).

Figure The value of transactions between people on oil palm plantations and the rural and urban economies

The value of transactions between people on oil palm plantations and the rural and urban economies

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