Indonesia is not Europe or North America, which, at the beginning of their industrial development era, cleared all primary forests, and thus no longer have natural forests to house wildlife or natural biodiversity.
Hence, the countries in Europe and North America are currently reestablishing protected/conserved forests called High Conservation Value (HCV) and High Carbon Stock (HCS).
Indonesia, on the contrary, embarked on its development by preserving 30 percent of its total lands as natural forests, including protected forests and conservation forests. Virgin forests are protected from deforestation by Law No. 41/1999 on Forestry, Law No. 5/1990 on Conservation of Natural Resources and Ecosystems and Law No. 26/2007 on Spatial Planning as the home for wildlife such as orangutan, Sumatran tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses, Komodo dragons, and other diverse species.
Within the protected/conserved forests in Indonesia (Table) are 4 million hectares of Strict Nature Reserve and 5 million hectares of Wildlife Sanctuary. Other than theseis13 million hectares of Nature Conservation Area that consists of National Parks, Nature Recreational Parks, Grand Forest Park and Game Hunting Parks.
Table: Functions of High Conservation Value (HCV) Protected and Conservation Forests in Indonesia
|1. Nature Conservation|| |
|a. Strict Nature Reserve||222||3,957,691||5||152,610|
|b. Wildlife Sanctuary||71||5,024,138||4||5,588|
|2. Natural Resource Conservation|| |
|a. National Park||43||12,328,523||7||4,043,541|
|b. Nature Recreational Park||101||257,323||14||491,248|
|c. Grand Forest Park||23||351,680||–||–|
|d. Game Hunting Park||13||220,951||–||–|
Source: Forestry Ministry Statistics, 2013
Protected and conservation forests are those forests with High Conservation Value (HCV) for biodiversity and the natural habitats and they are also High Carbon Stock (HCS).
The development of oil palm plantations takes place in Cultivation Zones, outside protected and conserved forest areas. The development of oil palm plantations has actually regreened, both ecologically and economically, uninhabited areas and critical lands after massive logging activities during 1970-1990.