The expansion of oil palm plantations depletes the natural habitat of animals and biodiversity.

Perluasan kelapa sawit telah menghabiskan hutan tempatnya satwa-satwa dan biodiversity.

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Indonesia is not Europe or North America, which, at the beginning of their industrial development era, cleared all primary forests, and thus no longer have natural forests to house wildlife or natural biodiversity.

Hence, the countries in Europe and North America are currently reestablishing protected/conserved forests called High Conservation Value (HCV) and High Carbon Stock (HCS).

Indonesia, on the contrary, embarked on its development by preserving 30 percent of its total lands as natural forests, including protected forests and conservation forests. Virgin forests are protected from deforestation by Law No. 41/1999 on Forestry, Law No. 5/1990 on Conservation of Natural Resources and Ecosystems and Law No. 26/2007 on Spatial Planning as the home for wildlife such as orangutan, Sumatran tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses, Komodo dragons, and other diverse species.

Within the protected/conserved forests in Indonesia (Table) are 4 million hectares of Strict Nature Reserve and 5 million hectares of Wildlife Sanctuary. Other than theseis13 million hectares of Nature Conservation Area that consists of National Parks, Nature Recreational Parks, Grand Forest Park and Game Hunting Parks.

Table:   Functions of High Conservation Value (HCV) Protected and Conservation Forests in Indonesia

DescriptionLandMaritime
UnitHaUnitHa
1. Nature Conservation 
a. Strict Nature Reserve2223,957,6915152,610
b. Wildlife Sanctuary715,024,13845,588
2. Natural Resource Conservation 
a. National Park4312,328,52374,043,541
b. Nature Recreational Park101257,32314491,248
c. Grand Forest Park23351,680
d. Game Hunting Park13220,951

Source: Forestry Ministry Statistics, 2013

Protected and conservation forests are those forests with High Conservation Value (HCV) for biodiversity and the natural habitats and they are also High Carbon Stock (HCS).

The development of oil palm plantations takes place in Cultivation Zones, outside protected and conserved forest areas. The development of oil palm plantations has actually regreened, both ecologically and economically, uninhabited areas and critical lands after massive logging activities during 1970-1990.

Indonesia berbeda dengan Eropa dan Amerika Utara yang pada awal masa pembangunannya mendeforestasi seluruh hutan primernya sehingga tidak lagi memiliki hutan asli untuk “rumahnya” satwa-satwa liar dan biodiversity lainnya.

Oleh karena itu, saat ini Eropa dan Amerika Utara sedang membangun kembali hutan konservasi/lindung yang disebut sebagai High Conservation Value (HCV) dan High Carbon Stock (HCS).

Indonesia sejak awal telah menetapkan minimum 30 persen daratan di pertahankan sebagai hutan asli termasuk hutan lindung dan konservasi. Hutan tersebut, berupa hutan asli (virgin forest) dan dilindungi (no deforestasi) oleh UU No. 41/1999 (Tentang Kehutanan), UU No. 5/1990 (Tentang Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam dan Ekosistem), dan UU No. 26/2007 (Tentang Penataan Ruang) untuk “rumahnya” satwa-satwa liar (seperti Orang Utan, Mawas, Harimau Sumatera, Gajah, Badak Bercula, Komodo dan lain-lain) dan biodiversity lainnya.

Dalam fungsi hutan lindung/konservasi di Indonesia (Tabel) dikenal dengan Cagar Alam (Strict Nature Reserve) sekitar 4 juta hektar, Suaka Margasatwa (Wild Life Sanctuary) seluas 5 juta hektar. Selain itu, juga Hutan Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam (Nature Conservation Area) seluas 13 juta hektar yang terdiri dari Taman Nasional (National Park), Taman Wisata Alam (Nature Recreational Park), Taman Hutan Rakyat (Grand Forest Park) dan Taman Buru (Game Hunting Park).

Tabel.     Fungsi High Conservation Value (HCV) Hutan Lindung dan Konservasi di Indonesia

UraianDaratanPerairan
UnitHaUnitHa
1. Pelestarian Alam 
a. Cagar Alam2223.957.6915152.610
b. Suaka Margasatwa715.024.13845.588
2. Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam 
a. Taman Nasional4312.328.52374.043.541
b. Taman Wisata Alam101257.32314491.248
c. Taman Hutan Rakyat23351.680
d. Taman Buru13220.951

Sumber : Statistik Kementerian Kehutanan, 2013

Hutan lindung dan konservasi tersebut, merupakan hutan dengan nilai konservasi tinggi (High Conservation Value/HCV), baik berupa biodiversity maupun proteksi alam dan mengandung stok karbon tinggi (High Carbon Stock/HCS).

Pengembangan perkebunan kelapa sawit dilakukan di kawasan budidaya yakni di luar hutan lindung dan hutan konservasi tersebut. Pengembangan perkebunan kelapa sawit justru menghijaukan kembali (secara ekologis dan ekonomi) lahan-lahan terlantar, kritis, sebagian gundul akibat logging yang massif pada tahun 1970-1990.

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