Utilization of Oil Palm Biomass and Waste as Animal Feed
Along with the increasing of population and rising into middle-upper (income) class as indicated by higher purchasing power, are the driving factors for increasing the consumption of meat in Indonesia. Based on Pusdatin data, it shows that consumption per capita of beef has increase from 2.36 kg/capita/year in 2017 to 2.56 kg/capita/year in 2019.
However, the demand hasn’t been matching with low domestic production so that the Indonesian government had to open import taps to fulfill the domestic needs. Therefore, the government also has a vision to increase the domestic meat production and even achieve self-sufficiency.
To developing of livestock production require stable availability and quality feed. This shows that feed is one of determining factor for the success and sustainability of the livestock production business. Animal feed is a component that can absorb production costs in this sector, where the feed costs reach 60-80 percent of the total production cost. In addition to consuming a lot proportion of production costs, the availability of feed especially forage, is also a problem, where it is currently difficult to find pasture due to land conversion. Therefore, strategic steps are needed to cost efficiency and increase the availability of animal feed, for example by utilization of agricultural commodities waste.
Oil palm biomass are fronds and leaves, which is consider as waste in plantation, are the potential ingredients to be used as animal feed as a substitute for forage. This is because its crude fiber content is quite high with lignin content of 17.4% in fronds and 27.6% in leaves. The large potential for animal feed produced at the oil palm plantation is the basis of the government program, namely the oil palm and beef cattle integration system.
To be used optimally as animal feed, fronds must be processed. One of processed method through the ammoniation process with urea. Based on the research results, oil palm leaves and fronds that have been processed by ammonia and fermentation can be used as 100% substitutes for grass in animal feed. PT. Austasia Stockfeed, which is the only Wagyu beef producer in Indonesia, has also used oil palm biomass as a source of animal feed for the beef cattle fattening process.
Apart from forage feed, oil palm biomass also has the potential to be a source of concentrate feed which cattleman have to buy at a quite expensive price. Oil palm biomass or waste that has the potential to become concentrate feed is palm kernel meal. The utilizaiton of this palm oil by-product which as a feedstuff for concentrate feed has also been widely used by the global feed industry, such as the feed industry in European, which most of sources palm kernel meal come from Indonesia.
Result study from Research Institute for Livestock shows that palm kernel meal contains 10% of water, 14-17% of protein, 9.5-10.5% of fat, and 12-18% of crude fiber. The nutritional content makes its potential to be nutritious feed for both ruminants and non-ruminants. Besides that, the use of palm kernel meal can also replace soybean meal and Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) which are widely imported by feed industry in Indonesia as a source of protein for animal feed. It’s implication is to reduce the feed costs borne by cattleman, so that production cost efficiency can be achieved.
Not only palm kernel cake that have a potential to be used as animal feed, in palm oil processing resulting waste namely Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) which has also same potential. Through SBE processing technology, namely Solvent Extraction, two products can be produced, namely Recovered Oil (R-Oil) and De-oiled Bleaching Earth (De-Obe). De-OBE which is a product with a solid phrase like clay and contains palm oil residue.
The oil content in clay (De-OBE) has nutritional value for livestock and is not harmful if consumed. The clay can also be mixed directly with soybean meal and other ingredients to produce nutritious animal feed. In addition, feed products for pollutry and livestock can also be produced by adding fine particulate lime (Calcium carbonate) to the SBE discharged from the process filters, so the spontaneous combustion can be eliminated.
The utilization of various oil palm product such as by-products and waste into animal feed products are expected to be a solution to fulfillment of the need for nutritious animal feed and at the same time it can reduce production costs so that price of pollutry and livestock products become more competitive. The further implication will be to increase productivity and production of domestic polutry and livestock products so that they can fulfill their domestic needs.
This utilization into animal feed products is also expected to increase the economic value of palm oil by-products and waste, so that producers, especially smallholder farmers, can enjoy additional benefits.
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