One Map Policy Decides Oil Palm Plantations in Indonesia are 16.38 Million Hectares

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The issue that is often used by anti-palm NGOs both in Indonesia and transnational is the Indonesian tropical forests, especially on Borneo and Sumatran have turned into oil palm plantations. The issue is not entirely true because in the development of oil palm plantations there have been quite strict procedures related to the release of forest areas. However, this negative issue or black campaign has succeeded in attracting the attention of world consumers and even to the point of raising a boycott movement of palm oil products in several countries.

Palm oil free
The Palm Oil Boycott Movement (Source: Media Indonesia)

This condition has the potential to harm the Indonesian palm oil industry and the Indonesian economy, because the substantial export value contribution of palm oil and its derivative products. Therefore, the issuance of Presidential Instruction (Inpres) No.8 of 2018 concerning the Postponement and Evaluation of Oil Palm Plantation Licensing and Increasing Productivity of Oil Palm Plantation. The Oil Palm Moratorium Instruction is expected to be able to evaluate licensing and improve governance in Indonesian palm oil industry so that overlapping palm oil land permits do not happen again.

To make the Inpres a success, one of the obstacles faced was the absence of a palm map that became a guide in granting permits. Therefore, the first step taken is to make a one map of Indonesia’s oil palm plantations. So far, many institutions have released data on the total area of ​​Indonesian oil palm plantations, but the data for each institution is different. The difference in numbers is due to differences in definition and methodology.

 

According to data from the Directorate General of Plantation of the Ministry of Agriculture, the area of ​​Indonesian oil palm plantations in 2018 is 14.3 million hectares. There are also different data of areas of oil palm plantations owned by several institutions such as the 17.9 million hectare version of the Geospatial Information Agency (BIG), the 15 million hectare version of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK), the 20 million hectare version of the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK).

Therefore, a team was formed which was initiated by the Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs which consists of the ATR/BPN Ministry, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, the Geospatial Information Agency (BIG), and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (Lapan).

The team is tasked with carrying out reconciliation including data consolidation by synchronizing the methodology then conducting a ground check so that obtained an area of ​​oil palm plantation land in Indonesia. The initial step of determining an area of ​​oil palm plantation is by making data that is acceptable to all parties. To determine data on the extent of oil palm plantations, the Consolidation Team used three sources, namely BIG, KLHK and KPK/Kehati Foundation. From these three sources, we obtained extensive data that has been reviewed and the use of satellite imagery includes overlaying.

The results of reconciliation of data on land cover for oil palm plantations in 2019 will cover 16.38 million hectares in 26 provinces. These results then be the basis of Minister of Agriculture Decree Number 833/KPTS/SR. 020/M/12/2019. The largest oil palm plantations in Indonesia are still in Riau Province, reaching 3.39 million hectares (20 percent of the total area of ​​Indonesian oil palm plantations). Furthermore, the largest oil palm plantations are in North Sumatra with an area of ​​2.08 million hectares and West Kalimantan with an area of ​​1.81 million hectares.

When compared with the Oil Palm Statistics data released by the Directorate General of Plantations of the Ministry of Agriculture, there is a difference in the area of ​​Indonesian oil palm plantations with a difference of nearly 2 million hectares. The thing that needs to be criticized is whether the difference is the accumulation of underestimate statistical recording from the previous year or is the difference really the area of ​​new oil palm plantations?

Therefore, the Palm One Map Consolidation Team needs to immediately conduct a ground check of 16.38 million hectares of Indonesian oil palm plantations. This is done to minimize errors from the interpretation of digital satellite data. So that data can be obtained from the real area of ​​Indonesian oil palm plantations in the field. It is also hoped that this One Map can become a database containing extensive information and landowners (companies and farmers). So that future policies and implementation of governance in the palm oil industry such as PSR and ISPO more effectively, efficiently and on target.

Isu yang sering “digoreng” oleh LSM anti sawit baik yang ada di Indonesia maupun trans-nasional adalah hutan tropis Indonesia khususnya di di Pulau Kalimantan atau di Sumatera telah berubah menjadi kebun sawit. Isu tersebut tidak sepenuhnya benar, karena dalam pengembangan kebun sawit telah ada prosedur yang cukup ketat terkait dengan pelepasan kawasan hutan. Namun, isu negatif tersebut telah berhasil menarik perhatian konsumen dunia bahkan hingga sampai memunculkan gerakan boikot produk sawit di beberapa negara.

Palm oil free
Gerakan Boikot Minyak Sawit. (Sumber: Media Indonesia)

Kondisi tersebut berpotensi merugikan industri sawit Indonesia dan perekonomian Indonesia, mengingat kontribusi devisa ekspor minyak sawit dan produk turunannya cukup besar. Oleh karena itu, diterbitkannya Instruksi Presiden (Inpres) No.8 Tahun 2018 tentang Penundaan dan Evaluasi Perizinan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit serta Peningkatan Produktivitas Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit. Inpres Moratorium Sawit tersebut diharapkan mampu mengevaluasi perizinan dan memperbaiki tata kelola industri sawit Indonesia sehingga tidak terjadi lagi tumpang tindih izin lahan kebun sawit.

Untuk menyukseskan Inpres tersebut, salah satu hambatan yang dihadapi adalah tidak adanya satu peta sawit yang menjadi pegangan dalam pemberian izin. Oleh karena itu, langkah pertama yang dilakukan adalah membuat satu peta kebun sawit Indonesia. Selama ini banyak lembaga/institusi yang mengeluarkan data luas areal kebun sawit Indonesia, namun data setiap insitusi tersebut berbeda. mengingat kontribusi devisa ekspor minyak sawit dan produk turunannya cukup besar.

 

Menurut data Ditjen Perkebunan Kementerian Pertanian luas kebun sawit Indonesia tahun 2018 sebesar 14.3 juta hektar. Ada juga data luas kebun sawit  yang berbeda dimiliki oleh beberapa lembaga seperti 17.9 juta hektar versi Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG), 15 juta hektar versi Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan (KLHK), 20 juta hektar versi Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK).

Untuk memutuskan berapa luas kebun sawit di Indonesia, pemerintah membentuk suatu tim kerja yang diinisiasi oleh Kementrian Koordinator Perekonomian yang beranggotakan Kementerian ATR/BPN, Kementerian Pertanian (Kementan), Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan (KLHK), Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG), serta Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional (Lapan).

Tim kerja tersebut bertugas melakukan rekonsiliasi termasuk konsolidasi data dengan menyamakan metodologi kemudian melakukan groundcheck sehinga diperoleh satu data luas lahan kebun sawit di Indonesia. Langkah awal dari penentuan satu data luas kebun sawit dengan membuat data yang bisa diterima oleh semua pihak. Untuk menentukan data luasan kebun sawit, Tim Konsolidasi menggunakan tiga sumber yaitu BIG, KLHK dan KPK/Yayasan Kehati. Dari keitga sumber tersebut diperoleh data luas yang telah dilakukan pengkajian ulang dan penggunaan citra satelit termasuk melakukan overlay.

Hasil rekonsoliasi data tutupan lahan perkebunan sawit tahun 2019 seluas 16.38 juta hektar di 26 provinsi. Hasil tersebut kemudian menjadi dasar Keputusan Menteri Pertanian Nomor 833/KPTS/SR. 020/M/12/2019. Kebun sawit terluas di Indonesia masih berada di Provinsi Riau mencapai 3.39 juta hektar (20 persen dari total luas kebun sawit Indonesia). Selanjutnya, kebun sawit terluas berada di Sumatera Utara seluas 2.08 juta hektar dan Kalimantan Barat seluas 1.81 juta hektar.

Jika dibandingkan dengan data Statistik Kelapa Sawit yang dikeluarkan oleh Ditjen Perkebunan Kementerian Pertanian, menunjukkan adanya perbedaan luas kebun sawit Indonesia dengan selisih hampir 2 juta hektar. Hal yang perlu dikritisi adalah apakah selisih luas tersebut merupakan akumulasi underestimate pencatatan statistik dari tahun sebelumnya atau selisih tersebut memang luas areal sawit baru?

Oleh karena itu, Tim Konsolidasi Satu Peta Sawit perlu segera melakukan groundchecking 16.38 juta hektar kebun sawit Indonesia. Hal ini dilakukan untuk meminimalisir eror dari interpretasi digitasi  data satelit. Sehingga dapat diperoleh data luas areal kebun sawit Indonesia yang real di lapangan. Diharapkan juga Satu Peta ini dapat menjadi database yang memuat informasi luas dan pemilik lahan (perusahaan dan pekebun). Sehingga kebijakan dan implementasi tata kelola industri sawit ke depan seperti PSR dan ISPO dapat berjalan lebih efektif, efisien dan tepat sasaran.

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