Get to Know Presidential Regulation 44/2020 Concerning ISPO

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The palm oil industry and its products have become one of the agricultural sectors and products that often experience negative campaigns related to environmental and social issues so that it is considered to be an unsustainable sector. The rise of the campaign has led global consumers to demand aspects of sustainability (economic, social and environmental) in the management of oil palm cultivation to produce palm oil-based products. The issue of sustainability has also been used by developed countries such as the European Union and the United States as a requirement for importing palm oil and its derivative products into the country.

In the history of global agriculture, only palm oil that has been questioned about its sustainability issues and even required to have certification that indicates that its cultivation process has met sustainability indicators, while other vegetable oils are not required to fulfill. Although it appears to discriminate against palm oil, but to accommodate the demands of global consumers and importing countries, various palm oil sustainability certification systems have been formed such as the Roundtable Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) and Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO).

The ISPO certification was formed by the Indonesian Government through the Ministry of Agriculture in 2009, not intending to replace/compete with the RSPO which had been initiated by companies/industries in the palm oil sector and downstream products, NGOs and academics at the global level. ISPO is a national standard in oil palm cultivation that initially aims to reduce the negative accusations from the international world while reducing the impact of environmental damage, greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation.

The legal basis for the ISPO is Minister of Agriculture Regulation No. 19/2011 which subsequently undergoes changes and is replaced by Minister of Agriculture Regulation No. 11/2015. In Minister of Agriculture Regulation 11/2015, ISPO certification is mandatory for oil palm companies. Meanwhile, ISPO certification also applies voluntary to independent and plasma oil palm smallholders farmers and also plantation companies that produce palm oil for renewable energy.

The celebration of the 11th anniversary of ISPO in 2020, was also marked by the issuance of Presidential Regulation No. 44/2020 concerning the Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil Plantation Certification System. This Presidential Regulation concerning ISPO does not revise or replace Minister of Agriculture Regulation 11/2015, as long as the regulations in the Minister of Agriculture Regulation do not conflict with the provisions in the Presidential Regulation (article 28). This regulation was also made to complement the regulations regarding the existing palm oil sustainability certification system in the context of strengthening ISPO. This can be seen from the objectives of implementing the ISPO certification system which has more comprehensive (article 3), namely: (a) ensuring and improving the management and development of oil palm plantations in accordance with ISPO principles and criteria; (b) increase the acceptance and competitiveness of Indonesian oil palm plantations in national and international markets; and (c) increasing efforts to accelerate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

In the Presidential Regulation, there is also a definition of ISPO certification, which is a series of conformity assessment activities for the oil palm plantation business that is related to the provision of written guarantees that the oil palm products and/or governance have met the ISPO principles and criteria. Article 4 also mentions ISPO principles that have differences compared to the previous ISPO Ministry of Agriculture, while the seven principles include: (1) Compliance with Laws and Regulations; (2) Application of Good Plantation Practices; (3) Management of the Environment, Natural Resources and Biodiversity; (4) Employment Responsibilities; (5) Social Responsibility and Community Economic Empowerment; (6) Implementation of Transparency; and (7) Sustainable Business Improvement.

The issuance of the ISPO Presidential Regulation also reflects that the sustainable development of the palm oil industry is the responsibility and focus of the government. Unlike the ISPO Commission (in the Ministry of Agriculture) which is chaired by the Director General of Plantations at the Ministry of Agriculture and assisted by the ISPO Secretariat, the ISPO Committee (in Presidential Regulation) involves several related ministries/institutions (ex officio), which means the responsibility of organizing ISPO no longer the responsibility of one ministry/sector. The Steering Committee of the ISPO Committee is chaired by the Minister from Coordinating Minister for the Economy Affairs, and the Minister of Agriculture as a daily chairperson, with members from the Minister of Environment adn Forest, the Minister of Agrarian and Spatial Planning, the Minister of Trade, the Minister of Industry, the Minister of Home Affairs and the Head of the National Standardization Agency (BSN) / National Accreditation Committee (KAN). With the formation of the ISPO Committee, it is expected to be able to solve the problems that have been obstacles in the realization of ISPO, related to various government regulations that lock each other and overlap. In addition to ministries and government institutions, the ISPO Committee also consists of associations, academics and independent observers.

Another difference that is quite fundamental in the rules of Ministry of Agriculture Regulation 11/2015 and Presidential Regulation 44/2020 is that the ISPO obligation applies not only to oil palm plantation companies (cultivation, processing and integration), but smallholders (independent and plasma) are also required to have ISPO certification. To apply for ISPO certification, smallholders must attach a Plantation Registration Certificate (or Surat Tanda Daftar Perkebunan/STDB) and land rights. The ISPO mandatory for oil palm smallholders farmers is valid for 5 years from the issuance of this regulation. And if the business actor violates the mandatory provisions of the ISPO, administrative sanctions will be imposed including written warnings, fines and even suspension from oil palm plantations.

Oil palm farmers also get funding assistance to facilitate ownership of ISPO. The source of these funds comes from the APBN, APBD and/or other legal sources. One of the sources of ISPO certification funds can come from palm export levies managed by BPDPKS. Based on Decree of the Director General of Plantations No.144/Kpts/OT.05/4/2020 concerning Technical Guidelines for Palm Oil Plantation Facilities and Infrastructure in the Funding Framework for the Palm Oil Plantation Fund Management Board, explaining there is a technical verification process and several requirements related to disbursement of ISPO funds. One of the requirements is the incorporation of Farmer Groups/cooperatives or other economic institutions of farmers who have legality and legal status or are registered with the relevant authority.

In addition, referring to Presidential Regulation 44/2020 which states that ISPO certification can be given directly by ISPO Certification Institute  without going through ISPO Committee approval. The ISPO Certification Institute must be accredited by the National Accreditation Committee/KAN and fulfill the requirements of SNI ISO/IEC 10706: 2012. This aims to ensure independence in the assessment of plantation sustainability and reduce government intervention in the process of assessing and issuing certificates. In addition to accrediting LS, the active involvement and support of KAN and BSN in the ISPO Committee is also expected to be able to increase the confidence and acceptance of the ISPO certification system on oil palm cultivation and products both in national and global markets.

Industri sawit beserta produknya menjadi salah satu sektor dan produk pertanian yang sering mengalami kampanye negatif terkait isu lingkungan dan sosial sehingga dianggap menjadi sektor yang tidak berkelanjutan. Dengan maraknya kampanye tersebut menyebabkan konsumen global menuntut terpenuhinya aspek-aspek keberlanjutan (ekonomi, sosial dan lingkungan) dalam tata kelola budidaya sawit untuk menghasilkan produk-produk berbasis sawit. Isu keberlanjutan tersebut juga telah digunakan oleh negara maju seperti Uni Eropa dan Amerika Serikat sebagai persyaratan untuk mengimpor minyak sawit maupun produk turunannya ke negara tersebut.

Dalam sejarah pertanian global, baru minyak sawit yang dipertanyakan isu keberlanjutannya bahkan dituntut memiliki sertifikasi yang menandakan bahwa proses budidayanya telah memenuhi indikator keberlanjutan, sedangkan minyak nabati lainnya tidak dituntut untuk memenuhi hal tersebut. Meskipun terkesan mendiskriminasi sawit, namun untuk mengakomodir tuntutan konsumen global dan negara importir, maka dibentuklah berbagai sistem sertifikasi keberlanjutan minyak sawit seperti Roundtable Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) dan Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO).

Sertifikasi ISPO ini dibentuk oleh Pemerintah Indonesia melalui Kementerian Pertanian pada tahun 2009, bukan bermaksud untuk menggantikan/menyaingi RSPO yang telah lebih awal diinisiasi perusahaan/industri sektor sawit dan produk hilir, LSM dan akademisi di tingkat global. ISPO merupakan standar nasional dalam budidaya sawit yang pada awalnya bertujuan untuk meredam tudingan negatif dari dunia internasional sekaligus mengurangi dampak perusakkan lingkungan, emisi gas rumah kaca dan deforestasi.

Dasar hukum ISPO adalah Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No.19/2011 yang kemudian mengalami perubahan dan digantikan oleh Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No. 11/2015. Dalam Permentan 11/2015 tersebut, sertifikasi ISPO berlaku secara wajib (mandatory) bagi perusahaan perkebunan sawit. Sementara itu, sertifikasi ISPO juga berlaku sukarela atau voluntary bagi pekebun sawit rakyat swadaya dan plasma maupun perusahaan perkebunan yang memproduksi minyak kelapa sawit untuk energi terbarukan.

Perayaan ulangtahun ISPO yang ke-11 pada tahun 2020 ini, juga diwarnai dengan diterbitkannya Peraturan Presiden No. 44/2020 tentang Sistem Sertifikasi Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan Indonesia. Perpres ISPO ini tidak merevisi atau menggantikan Permentan 11/2015, asal peraturan dalam Permentan tersebut tidak bertentangan dengan ketentuan dalam Perpres (pasal 28). Perpres ini juga dibuat untuk melengkapi peraturan mengenai sistem sertifikasi keberlanjutan minyak sawit yang telah ada sebelumnya dalam rangka penguatan ISPO. Hal tersebut dapat dilihat dari tujuan penyelenggaraan sistem sertifikasi ISPO yang lebih komprehensif (pasal 3), yaitu: (a) memastikan dan meningkatkan pengelolaan serta pengembangan perkebunan kelapa sawit sesuai prinsip dan kriteria ISPO; (b) meningkatkan keberterimaan dan daya saing hasil perkebunan kelapa sawit Indonesia di pasar nasional dan internasional; dan (c) meningkatkan upaya percepatan penurunan emisi gas rumah kaca.

Dalam perpres tersebut juga terdapat definisi dari sertifikasi ISPO yakni rangkaian kegiatan penilaian kesesuaian terhadap usaha perkebunan kelapa sawit yang berkaitan dengan pemberian jaminan tertulis bahwa produk dan/atau tata kelola perkebunan kelapa sawit telah memenuhi prinsip dan kriteria ISPO. Dalam pasal 4 juga disebutkan prinsip ISPO yang memiliki perbedaan dibandingkan dengan Permentan ISPO sebelumnya, adapun ketujuh prinsip tersebut meliputi: (1) Kepatuhan terhadap Peraturan Perundang-undangan; (2) Penerapan Praktik Perkebunan yang Baik; (3) Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup, Sumber Daya Alam dan Keanakeragaman Hayati; (4) Tanggung Jawab Ketenagakerjaan; (5) Tanggung Jawab Sosial dan Pemberdayaan Ekonomi Masyarakat; (6) Penerapan Transparansi; dan (7) Peningkatan Usaha secara Berkelanjutan.

Diterbitkannya Perpres ISPO ini juga mencerminkan bahwa pengembangan industri sawit yang berkelanjutan menjadi tanggung jawab dan fokus pemerintah. Berbeda dengan Komisi ISPO (dalam Permentan) yang diketuai oleh Dirjen Perkebunan Kementerian Pertanian dan dibantu oleh Sekretariat ISPO, Komite ISPO (dalam Perpres) melibatkan beberapa kementerian/lembaga terkait (ex officio), yang artinya tanggung jawab penyelenggaraan ISPO bukan lagi tanggung jawab satu kementerian/sektoral. Dewan Pengarah Komite ISPO diketuai oleh Menko Perekonomian dan ketua harian yaitu Menteri Pertanian, dengan beranggotakan Menteri Kehutanan dan Lingkungan Hidup, Menteri Agraria dan Tata Ruang, Menteri Perdagangan, Menteri Perindustrian, Menteri dalam Negeri dan Kepala Badan Standarisasi Nasional (BSN)/Komite Akreditasi Nasional (KAN). Dengan terbentuknya Komite ISPO tersebut, diharapkan dapat menyelesaikan permasalahan yang selama ini menjadi hambatan dalam realisasi ISPO, terkait berbagai aturan pemerintah yang saling mengunci dan tumpang tindih. Selain kementerian dan lembaga pemerintah, Komite ISPO juga terdiri dari asosiasi pelaka usaha, akademisi dan pemantau independen.

Perbedaan lainnnya yang cukup mendasar pada aturan Permentan 11/2015 dan Perpres 44/2020 adalah kewajiban ISPO berlaku tidak hanya untuk perusahaan perkebun sawit (budidaya, pengolahan dan integrasi), namun pekebun sawit rakyat (swadaya dan plasma) juga diwajibkan memiliki sertifikasi ISPO. Untuk mengajukan permohon sertifikasi ISPO tersebut, pekebun wajib melampirkan Surat Tanda Daftar Perkebunan (STDB) dan hak atas tanah. Mandatory ISPO bagi pekebun sawit berlaku dalam jangka 5 tahun sejak Perpres ini diundangkan. Dan jika pelaku usaha melanggar ketentuan wajib ISPO, maka akan dikenakan sanksi administrasi diantaranya berupa teguran tertulis, denda bahkan penghentian sementara dari usaha perkebunan kelapa sawit.

Pekebun juga mendapatkan bantuan pendanaan untuk memfasilitasi kepemilikkan ISPO. Sumber dana tersebut berasal APBN, APBD dan/atau sumber lainnya yang sah. Salah satu sumber dana sertifikasi ISPO dapat berasal dari dana pungutan ekspor sawit yang dikelola oleh BPDPKS. Berdasarkan Keputusan Dirjen Perkebunan No.144/Kpts/OT.05/4/2020 tentang Pedoman Teknis Sarana dan Prasarana Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit dalam Kerangka Pendanaan Badan Pengelolan Dana Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit, menjelaskan terdapat proses verifikasi teknis dan beberapa syarat terkait pencairan dana ISPO. Salah satu syaratnya adalah tergabungnya dalam Kelompok Tani/Gapoktan/koperasi atau kelembagaan ekonomi pekebun lainnya yang memiliki legalitas dan berbadan hukum atau terdaftar pada instansi terkait yang berwenang.

Selain itu, mengacu pada Perpres 44/2020 yang menyebutkan bahwa sertifikasi ISPO dapat diberikan secara langsung oleh Lembaga Sertifikasi (LS) ISPO tanpa melalui persetujuan Komite ISPO. LS ISPO tersebut harus terakreditasi oleh Komite Akreditasi Nasional/KAN dan memenuhi persyaratan SNI ISO/IEC 10706:2012. Hal ini bertujuan untuk menjamin independensi dalam penilaian keberlanjutan kebun serta mengurangi intervensi pemerintah dalam proses penilaian dan penerbitan sertifikat. Selain mengakreditas LS, Keterlibatan aktif dan dukungan KAN dan BSN dalam Komite ISPO juga diharapkan mampu meningkatkan kepercayaan dan keberterimaan sistem sertifikasi ISPO pada budidaya dan produk sawit baik di pasar nasional maupun global.

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