The Potentials Gain Of Used Cooking Oil (UCO) Processing Into Eco-Friendly Energy Sources
One of the well-known palm oil products is palm cooking oil. Most of cooking oil products consumed by Indonesian are source from palm oil. This products also included in one of the nine basic groceries (Sembako) in Indonesia.
Palm cooking oil products have become important part of Indonesian’s dietary. Because the large consumption of palm cooking oil in Indonesia is not only due to the fact that this country is the largest producer of palm oil in the world, but also due to the factor of eating habits of Indonesian who prefer deep-fried foods.
The used of palm cooking oil will produced Used Cooking Oil (UCO) as waste. UCO’s consumption has the potential to endanger the health, and also trigger various diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer, and Parkinson. UCO generates from repeated use of palm cooking oil at high temperatures and for a long time, will cause changes and damage to chemical composition.
In addition to potentially endangering consumer’s health, the volume of UCO in Indonesia is also estimated to be very large, given the large consumption of palm cooking oil. A study conducted by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) states that the UCO’s potential in Indonesia reaches 1.64 billion liters per year.
Given the large volume and the potential hazards, the serious handling is needed to prevent the re-entry of UCO into the market as bulk oil. The Indonesian government should develop a UCO’s centralized collection system at both the regional and national levels. Although there is no governance of UCO’s collecting, this initiative has emerged especially from the catering industry (restaurant) sector which supplying to several UCO’s collection services. Similar initiatives are also seen at the regional level, Bogor City Government has also initiated steps to collect and utilize of UCO.
TNP2K and Traction Energi Asia’s studies show that from the national consumption of palm cooking oil in 2019 reached 16.2 million kiloliters and the potential of UCO’s volume is in the range of 6.46 – 9.72 million kiloliters, but only about 3 million kiloliters of UCO can be collected. This data shows that lower of UCO’s volume has been collected, so that become is an obstacle to its utilization. Even though the waste contains the potential for high economic value products, one of them is eco-friendly renewable energy sources
One of the utilization of UCO is as feedstock (raw material) for biodiesel products. UCO contains palmitic and oleic acids which are quite high with a percentage of 32-47 percent and 38-56 percent, respectively. Both of these content make UCO suitable as biodiesel feedstocks by converting into ester through the esterification process.
The utilization of the UCO as biodiesel feedstocks has been carried out in other countries such as Japan, the United States, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, and other countries. Even, it’s the second main fedstock used by the EU biodiesel industry (after rapeseed oil), with its utilization has significant increase from 690 thousand tons in 2011 to 2.79 million tons in 2020.
Several private business are producing biodiesel from UCO, they are Lengis Hijau Foundation, GenOil, and Artha Metro Oil as well as several multinational companies such as Cargill, Adaro, Aqua, and Unilever It’s shows that this businesses are promising enough to generate profit. The Production Index Price (HIP) of UCO for biodiesel feedstock is cheaper than the HIP for palm oil, so that the producer can enjoy greater profit from processing UCO into biodiesel.
From environmental aspects, apart from producing biodiesel with the ability to reduce carbon emissions by 91.7 percent higher than fossil diesel, utilization of UCO can also reduce disposed of waste which will have an impact on increasing levels of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in the water. This causes the surface of the water to be covered with a layer of oil and blocking sunlight to waters, which can lead to the loss of biota and has the potential to pollute groundwater.
Apart from being used as a biodiesel feedstock, UCO also has potential to be source of electrical energy. The Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi/BPPT) collaborates with State Electriciy Company (PLN) to utilize UCO for diesel and gas-fueled power plant by applying Pure Plant Oil (PPO) technology. The trial results shows that the use of UCO in diesel fueled power plant (PLTD) is technically ready to replace 50 percent of diesel fuel. Meanwhile, the PPO technology for the utilization of UCO on gas turbin in diesel fueled power plant (PLTG) is still being studied.
The utilization of the UCO as a source of electrical energy has also been carried out in Malahing village, Bontang. Pupuk Kaltim utilized UCO into biodiesel and applied to engine generators. The generator has a power capacity of 6500 VA with biodiesel consumption of about 8 liters for a load of 4500 watts, and is capable of supplying electricity with a power-on time from 5 pm to 12 pm.
The potential for developing UCO as alternative of eco-friendly energy sources is very great, so it is unfortunate if this potential cannot be realized in the future. Therefore, it is necessary to centralize the UCO’s management system (from the process of collecting, transporting, processing) and this management processes equipped with an incentive scheme; as well as product quality standardization both regionally and nationally and also encouraging the campaign or promotion of collecting UCO.
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