JURNAL MONITOR VOL.2 NO.34 : ASAL USUL LAHAN PERKEBUNAN SAWIT INDONESIA DAN POLEMIK DEFORESTASI

TANGGAL PUBLIKASI : December 29, 2021
KEYWORDS : asal usul, deforestasi
PENULIS : PASPI MONITOR

ABSTRAK

Perkembangan perkebunan sawit yang sangat signifikan selama tiga puluh tahun terakhir, menimbulkan prasangka yang memojokkan dengan mengaitkan perkebunan sawit dengan deforestasi maupun hilangnya biodiversitas. Untuk meng-counter isu negatif tersebut, studi terkait asal usul lahan perkebunan sawit dilakukan oleh Gunarso et al. (2013) untuk tahun 1990-2010 dan kemudian dilanjutkan oleh Suharto et al. (2019) untuk periode tahun 2010-2018. Studi tersebut mengunakan data-data land use change dari potret citra satelit yang dikeluarkan oleh Badan Planologi Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan

Hasil studi terkait asal usul lahan kebun sawit Indonesia menunjukkan sekitar 62 persen berasal dari degraded land (degraded forest, schrubs, bare land) serta sekitar 37 persen dari lahan pertanian, perkebunan dan agroforestry. Oleh karena itu, tuduhan yang menyatakan bahwa deforestasi disebabkan ekspansi perkebunan sawit di Indonesia adalah tidak berlandaskan fakta dan data. Faktanya adalah perkebunan sawit Indonesia bukanlah fenomena deforestasi, justru sebaliknya merupakan fenomena restorasi sosial, ekonomi, dan ekologis. Penyebab deforestasi dan degradasi hutan di Indonesia bukanlah ekspansi kebun sawit, tetapi adalah pengembangan lahan pertanian, kebijakan transmigrasi (pada masa kolonial Belanda dan Orde Baru), kebakaran hutan, dan HPH

 Polemik deforestasi yang menuding ekspansi kebun sawit di Indonesia sebagai deforestasi, disebabkan karena adanya perbedaan definisi hutan, definisi deforestasi dan sejarah deforestasi yang dianut peneliti, lembaga maupun NGO. Terdapat sekitar 1600 pengertian hutan yang dianut negara-negara dunia, dan lembaga multinasional. Perbedaan definisi hutan tersebut menimbulkan perbedaan melihat perubahan hutan termasuk deforestasi.

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