JURNAL MONITOR VOL.2 NO.43: MULTI FUNGSI EKOLOGIS DARI PERKEBUNAN SAWIT INDONESIA

TANGGAL PUBLIKASI : December 29, 2021
KEYWORDS : ekologis
PENULIS : PASPI MONITOR

ABSTRAK

Saat ini, para enviromentalist lebih tertarik menyoroti dampak ekspansi sawit pada lingkungan seperti deforestasi dan biodiversity loss, dan lain-lain. Padahal fenomena deforestasi dilakukan oleh seluruh sektor ekonomi dan data juga menunjukkan bahwa pangsa perkebunan sawit relatif kecil terhadap deforestasi global. Para pemerhati lingkungan tersebut juga mungkin mengabaikan adanya fungsi lingkungan yang inheren (built in) yang melekat dalam perkebunan sawit seperti green function dan blue function pada konsep multifungsi pertanian. Setidaknya terdapat lima fungsi ekologis dari perkebunan sawit yakni: (1) fungsi pemanenan energi surya secara biologis; (2) fungsi pelestarian siklus karbon (carbon sink dan sequestration) dan fungsi pelestarian siklus oksigen; (3) fungsi pelestarian siklus hidrologi; (4) fungsi konservasi tanah dan air; dan (5) fungsi pelestarian plasma nutfah dan multifungsi kelapa sawit secara lintas generasi. Karakteristik perkebunan sawit sebagai parennial plant, memiliki ukuran yang relatif besar dan tinggi, canopy cover mendekati 100 persen dan siklus usia tanaman sekitar 25 tahun, berimplikasi pada fungsi dan manfaat ekologis yang melekat pada perkebunan kelapa sawit juga relatif sama bahkan lebih besar dibandingkan tanaman perkebunan lainnya (timber plantation atau rubber plantation) atau melebihi fungsi ekologis hutan. Sehingga multifungsinya perkebunan sawit bukan hanya berhasil melestarikan antar lintas generasi tetapi juga berhasil memperbesar dan memperluas manfaat yang dapat dinikmati lintas generasi baik pada level lokal, nasional maupun global.

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