JOURNAL MONITOR VOL.2 NO.13 : DOWNSTREAM AND THE CHANGE IN THE EXPORT COMPOSITION OF INDONESIAN PALM OIL

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Indonesian, English

Abstract

  • English
  • Indonesian
Most of Indonesia’s palm oil production for export-oriented, so the economic benefits that are felt are relatively lower because the price of palm oil (CPO and CPKO) is cheaper and there is no value-added. Therefore, the Indonesian government began to intensively develop palm oil downstream by issuing various policies such as export taxes and tax incentives for domestic industry since 2011.

 

The implication of these policies succed in encouraging the downstream development of palm oil in Indonesia. It can be seen from the change in the composition of exports of Indonesian oil palm products, which was dominated by exports of raw materials (CPO) in 2010, but then the export structure of Indonesian oil palm products in 2020 was dominated by exports of processed/derivative product of palm oil. The development of downstream also has implications for increasing the export value of palm oil products to reach USD 22.9 billion in 2020 and succeeded in bringing palm oil products as the main contributor to export foreign exchange in Indonesia’s trade balance in amid the pandemic and economic recession.

In addition to the increasing export value of palm oil products, exports of Indonesian palm products are of higher quality because they are dominated by downstream products and are produced by oil palm plantation centers which are spread across Indonesia and are based on people’s businesses (farmers and MSMEs). This shows that the increasing foreign exchange of oil palm product exports has become a “fresh blood” injection for the national economy and is part of the solutions to achieve SDGs related to income growth, increased employment opportunities, and economic equity

Sebagian besar produksi minyak sawit Indonesia ditujukan untuk ekspor, sehingga manfaat ekonomi yang dirasakan relatif lebih rendah karena harga minyak sawit (CPO dan CPKO) lebih murah dan tidak tercipta nilai tambah di dalam negeri. Oleh karena itu, Pemerintah Indonesia mulai intensif mengembangkan hilirisasi sawit dengan mengeluarkan berbagai kebijakan seperti pajak ekspor dan insentif pajak untuk industri hilir sawit domestik sejak tahun 2011.

 

Implikasi dari kebijakan tersebut berhasil mendorong pengembangan hilirisasi sawit di Indonesia. Hal tersebut dapat dilihat dari perubahan komposisi ekspor produk sawit Indonesia yang semula didominasi oleh ekspor bahan mentah (CPO) pada tahun 2010, namun kemudian struktur ekspor produk sawit Indonesia tahun 2020 didominasi oleh ekspor produk olahan sawit. Pengembangan hilirisasi sawit juga berimplikasi pada peningkatan nilai ekspor produk sawit hingga mencapai USD 22.9 miliar pada tahun 2020 hingga berhasil menjadi kontributor utama devisa ekspor dalam neraca perdagangan Indonesia di tengah pandemi dan resesi ekonomi.

Selain nilai ekspor produk sawit yang semakin meningkat, ekspor produk sawit Indonesia semakin berkualitas karena didominasi oleh produk hilir serta dihasilkan oleh sentra kebun sawit yang tersebar di Indonesia dan berbasis usaha rakyat (petani dan UMKM). Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa semakin meningkatnya devisa ekspor produk sawit menjadi injeksi “darah segar” bagi perekonomian nasional dan bagian dari upaya pencapaian tujuan-tujuan Sustainable Development Goals terkait dalam pertumbuhan pendapatan, peningkatan kesempatan kerja dan pemerataan ekonomi.

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