JOURNAL MONITOR EDITION 8 : CONTRIBUTION OF INDONESIAN AGRICULTURAL TOWARD GLOBAL AGRICULTURAL GHG EMISSIONS
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Indonesian agriculture sectors include palm oil plantations is considered as a major contributor of global GHG emissions. The accusation also seems to blaming the world agricultural sector as a major contributor to global GHG emissions, because the Indonesian agriculture sector is also part of the world agriculture sector.
The accusation is not in accordance with the empirical data and facts presented in various studies such as Olivier et al., (2020) and IEA (2016) which state that the contribution of the energy sector to global GHG emissions is greater than the agriculture sector. Although the contribution of emissions from the global agricultural sector is smaller, this sector also produced emissions in the form of methane gas (CH4) and Sodium oxide (NO2) gas which is mostly produced by livestock and the use of manure (76 percent) and rice cultivation (17 percent).
Based on its major emitter countries, the countries which produced largest global agricultural emission were China (13 percent), India (12 percent), Brazil (8 percent), European Union (7 percent) and USA (7 percent). Meanwhile, contribution of Indonesian agriculture sector only 3 percent of total global agriculture emission. Therefore, the accusation that mentioned that Indonesia’s agriculture sector contributed largest global agriculture emission is a false accusation.
As one of the largest agricultural countries in the world, Indonesian agriculture sector also produced emissions from rice cultivation (69 percent) and animal husbandry and the use of manure (26 percent). The data also confirms that oil palm plantations (both from the cultivation and use of peatlands) are not the largest GHG emitters in Indonesian agriculture sector. With these empirical facts show that if Indonesia wants to reduce GHG emissions in the agricultural sector, the emission reductions that must be done are the emissions resulting from rice cultivation activities and livestock sector activities.