JOURNAL MONITOR VOL.2 NO.19 GREENHOUSE GASES FOOTPRINT AND TOP GLOBAL EMITTERS

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Abstract

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  • Indonesian

Increasing the concentration of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the earth’s atmosphere has long been a concern of global community. This issue is also not only related to environmental issues but has become part of global politics and economy, even several developed countries have transfered their responsibility of increasing GHG emissions to developing countries.

The global GHG emissions footprint has been started from the early pre-industrial civilization until today with the concentration of GHG steadily increasing. Based on data on global GHG emissions in 2018, the  top-4 GHG emitters in the world are China, the United States, the European Union, and India, where they contributed around 60 percent of the global GHG. Meanwhile, the largest palm oil producer countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand are not include in the top-15 global GHG emitters. This means that the linking of global GHG emissions with oil palm plantations is a misleading and baseless accusation.

The top-4 emitter countries in the world should reduce emissions by reducing fossil energy consumption, given the energy sector is main source of GHG emissions. Therefore, the substitution of fossil energy with low carbon renewable energy is an important solution in reducing global GHG emissions. However, some developed countries have instead questioned the use of biofuels (renewable energy) such as palm biodiesel with various trade barrier instruments.

Peningkatan konsentrasi emisi greenhouse gas (GHG) pada atmosfer bumi telah lama menjadi perhatian masyarakat di dunia. Isu ini juga bukan hanya terkait isu lingkungan, tapi sudah menjadi bagian politik ekonomi dan perdagangan global bahkan beberapa negara maju justru mengalihkan tanggung jawab peningkatan emisi GHG tersebut ke negara-negara berkembang.

Jejak GHG global telah dimulai sejak awal peradaban pre-industri hingga saat ini dengan konsentrasi GHG pada atmosfer bumi yang terus meningkat. Berdasarkan data emisi GHG dunia tahun 2018, negara top-4 emiter GHG dunia yakni China, Amerika Serikat, Uni Eropa dan India, dimana sekitar 60 persen GHG dunia berasal dari top-4 tersebut. Sementara itu, negara-negara produsen minyak sawit dunia seperti Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand tidak termasuk top-15 emiter GHG dunia. Artinya pengkaitan emisi GHG dunia dengan perkebunan sawit dunia adalah tuduhan yang salah alamat dan tidak berdasar.

Seharusnya negara top-4 emitter dunia menurunkan emisi dengan menurunkan konsumsi energi fosil, mengingat sektor energi adalah sumber utama emisi GHG. Oleh karena itu, subsitusi energi fosil dengan low carbon renewable energy menjadi solusi penting dalam mengurangi emisi GHG global. Namun, beberapa negara maju justru mempersoalkan penggunaan biofuel (renewable energy) seperti biodiesel sawit dengan berbagai instrumen hambatan perdagangan.

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