JOURNAL MONITOR EDITION 30 : THE MANDATORY POLICY OF BIODIESEL AS “THE ANCHOR” OF INDONESIAN ECONOMY

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Abstract

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The policy of mandatory B30 was implemented in early 2020, and it is estimated that the biodiesel needs for the policy will reach 9.6 million kiloliters. But in this year, the world also faced Covid-19 pandemic. This pandemic had an impact on reducing the absorption of domestic biodiesel, due to a decrease in transportation activities because of policies to restrict social and economic activities. Even though it has decreased, the total biodiesel production in the B30 has accumulated to reach 5.73 million kiloliters or about 60 percent of the target.

On the other hand, the pandemic also give an impact on a decrease in the fossil fuel’s price and increase CPO’s price.. With this price trends, the B30 mandatory policy is considered by certain parties to be less efficient because the difference between the price of the fossil diesel price and the Market Index Price of biodiesel is too large and it closes the opportunity for producers to enjoy greater profits from exporting palm oil, so this policy is considered to be losses in business (financial).

Even though, the biodiesel (B30) mandatory policy is designed as an instrument of economic policy that aims to produce greater economic and social benefits with a larger scale/coverage of the population that enjoys these benefits in the long term, not a financial policy that profitable only for industry actor. This facts can be seen based on data published by Secretariat General National Energy Council (2019) that achievement of B20 policy on several economic indicators such as saving foreign exchange, increasing added value and labor absorption, and environmental impact of reducing carbon emissions.

Implementing the policy of mandatory B30 will generate greater economic benefits and emission reductions. Even in its realization, which has only been implemented for a few months, this policy has been able to reduce the amount of Indonesia’s oil and gas balance deficit net trade and save total trade balance during a pandemic and the threat of a global economic recession. The benefits of B30 can also be seen from a broader (macro) point of view, there is in addition to saving foreign exchange, reducing emissions and creating a large multiplier effect for the economy, this policy can create ), stabilizing CPO prices and FFB prices, opportunities to become price-makers at the global market level, solutions to trade barriers and policies that discriminate against palm oil, the achievement of the SDGs, and in order to achieve national energy security and independence.

Kebijakan mandatori B30 mulai diimplementasikan sejak awal tahun 2020. Dengan diimplementasikannya kebijakan tersebut, diperkirakan kebutuhan biodiesel untuk program tersebut mencapai 9.6 juta kiloliter. Namun pada tahun ini juga, dunia dihadapkan dengan pandemi Covid-19. Pandemi ini juga berdampak pada penurunan penyerapan biodiesel domestik, karena penurunan aktivitas transportasi akibat kebijakan pembatasan aktivitas sosial dan ekonomi. Meskipun mengalami penurunan, namun total produksi biodiesel pada B30 ini secara akumulasi mencapai 5.73 juta kiloliter atau sekitar 60 persen dari target.

Di sisi lain, pandemi juga berdampak pada penurunan harga solar fosil dan peningkatan harga CPO di pasar global. Dengan tren harga yang demikian, kebijakan mandatori B30 dinilai oleh pihak-pihak tertentu kurang efisien karena selisih antara harga diesel fosil dengan HIP Biodiesel terlalu besar dan menutup peluang produsen untuk menikmati profit yang lebih besar karena mengekspor minyak sawit, sehingga kebijakan ini dinilai merugikan secara bisnis (finansial).

Padahal kebijakan mandatori biodiesel didesain sebagai instrumen dari kebijakan ekonomi yang bertujuan menghasilkan manfaat ekonomi dan sosial yang lebih besar dengan skala/cakupan populasi yang menikmati manfaat tersebut lebih luas dan dapat dinikmati dalam jangka waktu yang panjang (long term goals), bukan kebijakan finansial yang hanya bertujuan menguntungkan salah satu pelaku industri. Fakta tersebut dapat dilihat berdasarkan data yang dipublikasikan oleh Dewan Energi Nasional (2019) atas pencapaian kebijakan mandatori B20 pada beberapa manfaat ekonomi seperti penghematan devisa solar impor, peningkatan nilai tambah dan penyerapan tenaga kerja serta manfaat lingkungan seperti pengurangan emisi karbon.

Dengan diimplementasikannya kebijakan mandatori B30 akan menghasilkan manfaat ekonomi dan penurunan emisi yang lebih besar. Bahkan dalam realisasinya dimana kebijakanini baru dilaksanakan beberapa bulan, namun sudah mampu mengurangi besarnya defisit neraca
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