JOURNAL MONITOR VOL.2 NO.1 : MULTIFUNCTIONAL OIL PALM PLANTATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGS)
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The agricultural sector is the oldest economic activity on earth, even also have been part of the evolution of ancient human culture and civilization since thousands of years ago. Besides producing agricultural products to fulfill human food needs, the agricultural sector also has another function known as multifunctional agriculture, which has produced multibenefits and has been felt across generations since the beginning of human civilization on earth. This concept began to be discussed at the global level at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, which showed that the agricultural sector has multiple important functions, namely an economic function (white function), socio-cultural function (yellow function/services), and two ecological functions consisting of water conservation (blue services), and preservation of natural resources (green function).
In concept of multifunction of agriculture, oil palm plantations as a part of agricultural sector also four main function, namely economy fuction (white function), socio-cultural function (yellow function/services), the function of water conservation (blue services), and the function of preserving natural resources (green function). This multifunctional oil palm plantation was enjoyed by people across generations, both Indonesian and even the global community, either who are directly or indirectly involved.
On the other hand, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a global development platform was launched by the United Nations (UN) in 2015 and has been adopted by countries in the world, actually is considered a “middle way” of two polarized paradigms/perspectives related of managing and utilizing of natural resources, such as developmentalists and environmentalists. This new paradigm shows that economic growth and environmental preservation can be managed optimally, so that can produce economic, social, and environmental of development goals in harmony that can be enjoyed in the long-term. Therefore, from 17 goals SDGs can be classified into three main aspects, namely economy (profit), social (people), and environment (planet).
If we examined, the SDGs has the same with the aspects in multifunctional agriculture concepts, namely 3-P terms or which can be translated into economic, social and environmental aspects. This shows that the multifunctional agriculture is the root of SDGs, so that the agricultural sector has implicitly fulfilled the SDGs principles and is a sustainable sector. Thus, it can be concluded that multifunctional oil palm plantations are also part of sustainable development and have proven to be sustainable. Therefore, the issue of sustainability (sustainability vs unsustainability) in oil palm plantations is unquestionable.