JOURNAL MONITOR VOL.2 NO.33 : THE FUNCTIONS AND LATEST DEVELOPMENT OF OIL PALM SEED INDUSTRY

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Abstract

  • English
  • Indonesian

The three important roles of the oil palm seed industry are the creation of superior varieties, the production of technology (embodied technology), and the preservation of oil palm germplasm. These roles are carried out by the seed industry simultaneously and continuously. Preservation of germplasm (biodiversity) through cultivation with the support of the seed industry, such as in oil palm, has not only succeeded in preserving the existing germplasm but also produced social, economic, and ecological benefits for the community across generations.

The presence of the oil palm seed industry in Indonesia has succeeded in preserving and developing 4 varieties in 1848 to 58 varieties, which were produced by 18 oil palm seed industries in Indonesia in 2020. Seed production capacity in Indonesia has also increased from around 120 million sprouts to around 250 million sprouts during the period 2000-2020.

With this current large production capacity of the oil palm seed industry, Indonesia is able to change the position of Indonesia, which was originally excess demand into excess supply. But the implementation of the moratorium on new permits fors oil palm plantations, which has implications for stopping the expansion of corporate oil palm plantations in Indonesia, has caused the sale of seeds to decreased significantly.

Another interesting thing about the development of the oil palm seed industry in Indonesia is that the market structure of oil palm seeds in Indonesia tends to monopolistic competition market, where the basis of competition is not dominated by price but also non-price competition variables such as quality, promotion, networking, and payment system.

 

Tiga peran penting dari industri perbenihan kelapa sawit yakni penciptaan varietas unggul, produksi teknologi (embodied technology) dan pelestarian plasma nutfah kelapa sawit. Ketiga peran tersebut dilakukan industri perbenihan secara simultan dan berkesinambungan. Pelestarian plasma nutfah (biodiversity) melalui pembudidayaan dengan dukungan industri perbenihan seperti pada kelapa sawit bukan hanya berhasil melestarikan plasma nutfah yang ada tetapi juga menghasilkan benefit sosial, ekonomi dan ekologi bagi masyarakat secara lintas generasi.

Kehadiran industri perbenihan kelapa sawit di Indonesia telah berhasil melestarikan dan mengembangkan 4 varietas tahun 1848 menjadi 58 varietas dan melahirkan 18 perusahaan pembibitan sawit di Indonesia pada tahun 2020. Kapasitas produksi benih/kecambah di indonesia juga mengalami peningkatan dari sekitar 120 juta kecambah menjadi sekitar 250 juta kecambah selama periode tahun 2000-2020.

Dengan besarnya kapasitas produksi industri benih sawit saat ini, mampu merubah posisi Indonesia yang awalnya excess demand menjadi excess supply. Bahkan seiring dengan implementasi kebijakan moratorium izin baru perkebunan kelapa sawit yang berimplikasi pada penghentian ekspansi perkebunan sawit korporasi di Indonesia menyebabkan penjualan benih (kecambah) mengalami penurunan yang cukup signifikan.

Hal lain yang menarik dari perkembangan industri benih sawit di Indonesia adalah struktur pasar benih sawit di Indonesia lebih mengarah pada struktur pasar persaingan monopolistik, dimana dasar persaingan bukan didominasi harga tetapi juga variabel diluar harga (non-price competition) seperti mutu, promosi, networking dan sistem pembayaran
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