JOURNAL MONITOR EDITION 38 : SOLUTION TO COUNTER THE ISSUE OF PALM OIL AS DRIVER OF DEFORESTATION AND LAND LEGALITY PROBLEM

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Abstract

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  • Indonesian

One of the topics of environmental issues used in the black campaign is that oil palm plantations are accused of being the main driver of deforestation. The anti-palm oil NGOs, which has often accused that oil palm plantations as the main cause of deforestation, actually they havent information about the history of deforestation in Indonesia. Main causes of forest lost in Indonesia are due to intensive logging especially in Orde Baru era and the impact of forest fires.

This fact also confirmed by study, which is summarizing the history of deforestation, it’s showing that oil palm plantations are not the main driver of deforestation in Indonesia. Although deforestation in Indonesia has increased from 68.1 million hectares (1950-1985) to 101.9 million hectares (2000-2017), but the proportion of additional oil palm plantation areas is only 0.4-9.7 percent of the total deforestation in Indonesia. Studiy of the origins of oil palm plantations in Indonesia also show that most of the land for oil palm plantations development comes from shrublands.

Even though it has been proven that oil palm plantations are not the main driver of deforestation in Indonesia, the existence of oil palm plantations in forest areas has increasingly made anti-palm oil parties use the issue of deforestation to inhibit and phase out palm oil in the global market. Whereas based on Gunarso’s study (2020), failure in Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) and improper spatial management policies is the cause of deforestation and oil palm plantation legality problems, so that the government’s “sins” must be borne by oil palm plantation actors which have the potential to threaten the sustainability of the national palm oil industry.

Therefore, solutions are needed in order to resolve the legality problem of oil palm plantations as well as answer and counter the issue of deforestation. The solutions in question include the Agreement Spatial Management Policy, the forest designation policy to be returned based on Law 41/1999, and the criteria for determining forest based on satellite image analysis which shows the area of ​​forest covered as the database used for the formulation of regional governance and spatial planning as well as data collected which is reported to international agencies such as FAO.

Salah satu topik dari isu lingkungan yang digunakan pada black campaign sawit yang sangat masif dipublikasikan oleh pihak anti sawit adalah perkebunan sawit dituding sebagai driver utama deforestasi. LSM anti sawit yang selama ini yang sering mengkampanyekan kebun sawit sebagai penyebab utama dari deforestasi, sebenarnya mereka tidak memiliki informasi mengenai sejarah deforestasi di Indonesia. Penyebab dari hilangnya hutan di Indonesia karena logging yang intensif khususnya pada periode Orde Baru dan dampak dari kebakaran hutan.

Hal tersebut juga terkonfirmasi dari studi yang merangkum sejarah deforestasi yang menunjukkan bahwa perkebunan sawit bukan menjadi driver utama deforestasi di Indonesia. Meskipun deforestasi di Indonesia mengalami peningkatan yakni dari 68.1 juta hektar periode tahun 1950-1985 menjadi 101.9 juta hektar pada periode tahun 2000-2017, namun proporsi penambahan luas areal kebun sawit hanya sebesar 0.4-9.7 persen dari luas deforestasi di Indonesia. Studi asal muasal perkebunan sawit di Indonesia juga menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar lahan kebun sawit berasal dari lahan semak belukar.

Meskipun telah terbukti kebun sawit bukanlah driver utama dari deforestasi di Indonesia, namun keberadaan perkebunan sawit di kawasan hutan semakin membuat pihak anti sawit menggunakan isu deforestasi untuk menghambat hingga mem-phase out minyak sawit di pasar global. Padahal berdasarkan studi Gunarso (2020), kegagalan dalam Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) dan kebijakan tata ruang yang kurang tepat menjadi penyebab dari deforestasi dan masalah legalitas perkebunan sawit, sehingga “dosa” pemerintah tersebut harus ditanggung oleh pelaku perkebunan sawit yang berpotensi mengancam sustainability industri sawit nasional.

Oleh karena itu, dibutuhkan solusi dalam rangka menyelesaikan masalah legalitas kebun sawit sekaligus menjawab isu deforestasi. Solusi yang dimaksud antara lain Kebijakan Tata Ruang Kesepakatan, kebijakan penunjukkan hutan dikembalikan berdasarkan UU 41/1999 dan kriteria penetapan hutan berbasiskan analisis citra satelit yang menunjukkan luas hutan yang berpenutupan hutan sebagai basis data yang digunakan untuk formulasi tata kelola dan tata ruang wilayah maupun data yang dilaporkan ke lembaga internasional seperti FAO.
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